Detailed, Step-by-Step NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society Questions and Answers were solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines covering each topic in chapter to ensure complete preparation. https://mcq-questions.com/ncert-solutions-for-class-12-sociology-chapter-2/
The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2
The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society Questions and Answers Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2
Explain the basic argument of the theory of demographic transition. Why is the transition period associated with a population explosion?
One of the significant theory in demography is the theory of demographic transition. This theory says that the population growth is directly related to the overall levels of economic development and generally every society follows a typical pattern of development related to population growth. Three basic phases of population growth are there. The first phase is of low population growth in an underdeveloped and technologically backward society.
Growth rate in this is low because death rate and birth rate both are very high. That is why difference between the both or net growth rate is low. The third phase is also one of low growth in a developed society where both the birth rate and death rate have been reduced to a great extent and there is very less gap between both of them. But there is transitional stage between the two, which is a movement from a backward to an advanced stage. This stage has a feature of very high rates of growth of population.
Transitional phase is related to population explosion because death rate is brought down quickly through better nutrition, public health and advanced methods of disease control. But birth rate does not reduce to such an extent and that is why growth rate goes high. Many countries are struggling to reduce the birth rate in keeping with the falling death rate.
Why did Malthus believe that catastrophic events like famines and epidemics that cause mass deaths were inevitable?
One of the most famous theories of demography is related with the English political economist, Thomas Robert Malthus. He was of the view that human population ii tends to grow at a much faster rate than the rate at which the human subsistence can grow. Therefore, humanity is condemned to live in poverty forever because the growth of agricultural production will always be overtaken by population growth. Because population growth is always more than the growth in production of subsistence resources, the.
only way to increase prosperity is by controlling the growth of population. But humans have very limited methods (preventive checks) to voluntarily reduce the growth of population. Malthus was of the view that positive checks on population growth are in the form of famines and diseases. These were inevitable because they were the nature’s way of dealing with the imbalance between food supply and increasing population.
What is meant by ‘Birth Rate’ and ‘Death Rate’? Explain why the birth rate is relatively slow to fall while the death rate declines much faster.
Birth Rate. Number of births in any particular area per thousand people in the population is called Birth rate. It means that in any particular area, how many children were born per 1000 persons.Death Rate. Number of deaths in any particular area per thousand people in the population is called death rate. It means that in any particular area, how many people have died per 1000 persons.
It is a hard fact that birth rate reduces very slowly as compared to death rate. One of the main reasons is that death rate can be reduced very quickly with the help of health services and by keeping control over epidemics. But birth rate cannot be reduced to that extent. Birth rate is generally more because of fertility rate, religious ideas, social views, poverty, fatalism, illiteracy, etc. and it is very difficult to change the ideas of masses. They are of the view that the children are given by God. So, He will take care of them. That is why birth rate does not reduce as quickly as death rate.
Which states of India have reached or are very near the replacement levels of population growth? Which -ones still have very high rates of population growth? In your opinion, what could be some of the reasons for these regional differences?
The meaning of replacement level is giving birth to two children by a couple. The states which have reached the replacement levels of population growth are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Goa, Punjab, Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, etc. The states where growth rate of population is more are Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan etc.
States which are very close in reaching replacement level are Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Uttarakhand, Karnataka, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh etc. There are certain regional factors of difference between rates of replacement levels and population growth and these factors are:
(i) If population will be literate then their thinking will definitely be positive. But if population will be illiterate then their thinking will be negative and they will be ignorant about most of the things. States with high literacy rate will have low growth rate and states with low literacy rate must have high growth rate.
(ii) Every state has its own values and customs which always influence the replacement level and growth rate.
(iii) There are number of people who favour giving birth to more number of children for more family income later on.
(iv) Each area has different cultural structure and literacy level and it also affects the growth rate.
What is meant by the age structure of the population? Why is it relevant for economic development and growth?
What is meant by the age structure of population? (C.B.S.E. 2010)
The age structure of the population is the proportion of persons is different age groups relative to the total population. Three age groups are included in it and these are
- 0-14 years
- 15-59 years, and
- 60 + years.
First group is of children, which is a dependent group. Second group is of youth which is also known as active or working class. Third group is of elder people. This will be clear from the given table.
|0-14 years||15-59 years||60 + years|
The table tells us that the people who belong to the working class are more in number. They remain at the top during 1961—2011. Then comes children or the dependent group yet, their number is decreasing. In the end elder people are there. Average age in our country is 63 years and that is why they are less in number.
Importance of Age Structure in Economic Development and Growth.
(i) The given table tells us that the age group of 0-14 years is continually decreasing after 1961. It is so because National Population Policy was implemented in 1976 and general masses came to know about the merits of less population.
(ii) This table tells us that the number of people in the age group of 60+ years are increasing constantly. It also tells us that life expectancy in our country is also increasing. It is so because the country is progressing and health services in the country are continually increasing. That is why people with the age of 60+ years live more than the people in the earlier times.
(iii) Table also tells us that working class of population is also increasing. They are progressing which helps in the progress of the country.
What is meant by sex ratio? What are some of the implications of a declining sex ratio? Do you feel that parents still prefer to have sons rather than daughters? What in your opinion, could be some of the reasons for this preference?
According to demographers and sociologists, what are the reasons for the decline in the child sex ratio in India? (C.B.S.E. 2010)
Define sex ratio. What is meant by an adverse or falling sex ratio? (C.B.S.E. 2010)
Mention the factors responsible for the decline in the child sex ratio in India? (C.B.S.E. 2017 (O.D.))
Sex ratio refers to the number of females per 1000 males in a given area at a specified time period. Sex ratio is an important indicator of gender balance in population. Historically, the sex ratio has been slightly in favour of females, which means the number of females per 1000 males has generally been somewhat higher.
But India has had a declining sex-ratio for more than a century now. From 972 females per 1000 males at the start of 20th century, the sex ratio, declined to 940 in 2011. The trends of the last four decades have been particularly worrying.
Yes, it is correct that even today, parents prefer to have male child as compared to girl child. Female foeticide is still going on, girls are sacrificed to have a boy, people take many steps to get a baby boy. Here, one thing is important that it has no direct relation with poverty. But it is directly related to socio-cultural factors. This has been linked to the prevailing social norms that tend to value males much more than females, which leads to ‘son preference’ and the relative neglect of girl babies.
- The availability of the sonogram, originally developed to identify genetic or other disorders in the foetus, is used, today, to identify and selectively abort female foetuses.
- It is striking that the lowest sex ratios are found in the most prosperous regions of India. Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, Gujarat, etc. are among the richest states with lowest sex ratios. This shows the problem of selective abortions and not ignorance or illiteracy.