NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion

Detailed, Step-by-Step NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion Questions and Answers were solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines covering each topic in chapter to ensure complete preparation.

Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5

Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion Questions and Answers Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5

Question 1.
How is social inequality different from the inequality of individuals?
How is social inequality different from inequality between individuals? (C.B.S.E. 2013)
The indifferent treatment or discrimination of a group, community, class, individual, etc., towards another group or individual is known as social inequality. Some social inequalities show natural differences between humans regarding their different abilities and efforts. Some are naturally gifted with exceptional talent or intelligence whereas others may have worked hard to achieve wealth and status. In this way we can say that social inequality is not the result of natural differences between the people but is produced by the society.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion

Question 2.
What are some of the features of social stratification? (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Social inequality differentiates between individuals. Highlight the principles to explain the concept of social stratification. (C.B.S.E. 2015)
Explain the three key principles of social stratification with examples. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (D))
(i) Society, in social stratification, is divided into different layers or stratas in which mutual relations between humans is based upon superiority and inferiority.

(ii) Different classes have different social status in social stratification. Some may have a higher status whereas others may have low status while still some might have neither a higher nor a lower status.

(iii) Interactions, in stratification, are restricted to a specific level. Every individual establishes relations with other individuals of the same status.

(iv) Social stratification persists over generations. It is closely related to the family circle and to the inheritance of social resources from one generation to another.

(v) Social stratification is supported by patterns of belief or ideology.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion

Question 3.
How would you distinguish prejudice from other kinds of opinion or belief?
Prejudice means those pre-conceived opinions or attitudes kept by the members of one group for the other. The literal meaning of the word ‘Prejudice’ is ‘pre-judgement’. It implies to an opinion made in advance of any familiarity with the subject, before taking into consideration any available evidence.

Preconceived views of any prejudiced person are generally based upon hearsay instead of any direct evidence and are opposite to change even if new information is available.

Prejudice can be positive or negative. Although this word is generally used for negative asumption, it can also be applied for favourable pre-judgement. For example, if a person has an opinion in favour of members of his own caste or group and, without any evidence, believe them to be superior to members of other castes or groups.

Question 4.
What is Social exclusion?
What does social exclusion refer to? (C.B.S.E. 2011)
The ways in which individuals may become cut off from complete involvement in the wider society is called social exclusion. Social exclusion pays attention to a number of factors which prevent individuals or groups from having opportunities open to the majority of the population. To live an active life, individuals must not only be able to feed, clothe and house themselves, but should have access to essential services and goods like health, education, social security, insurance, transportation, banking, police, judiciary, etc. Social exclusion is systematic and is the outcome of structural feature of society.

It is important to note that social exclusion is involuntary. It means exclusion is practised against the wishes of those who are excluded. For example, we will never find rich people sleeping on the pavements or under bridges like lakhs of poor and homeless people sleeping in towns and cities.

It does not mean that rich are being excluded from the access to pavements as if they wanted to, they could certainly gain access, but they choose not to. Social exclusion is sometimes wrongly justified by the logic that the excluded group itself didn’t want to participate. The truth of such an argument is not obvious when exclusion is preventing access to something desirable.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion

Question 5.
What is the relationship between caste and economic inequality today?
Earlier, caste and economic inequality were deeply related with each other. Social status and economic status of the person were correlating each other. Economic condition of higher castes was generally good and of lower castes was generally low. But in modern times, which means after 19th century, many changes have taken place between relations of caste and occupation. These days, due to strict laws, the caste restrictions of occupation and religion cannot be enforced upon anyone.

Now, adopting occupation is comparatively easier than before. One can adopt any occupation of his choice. Relation of caste and economic condition, these days, has been weakened as compared to 100 years ago. Nowadays, we can find rich and poor individuals in all the castes.

But one thing is important that the caste-class mutual relations still exist in the society. The difference between social and economic conditions of different castes has been reduced with the weakening of caste system. But caste based difference still exists between different socio-economic groups.

Question 6.
What is Untouchability?
Describe the social phenomenon of untouchability and explain its various dimensions. (C.B.S.E. 2010)
What is meant by the term untouchability? (C.B.S.B. 2013)
Caste system had one extreme and particularly vicious aspect and that was untouchability. It prescribes strict social restrictions against the castes located at the bottom of the social hierarchy. Strictly speaking, the untouchable castes were outside the caste hierarchy and were considered as impure. Untouchability has been declared illegal under the Untouchability Offence Act, 1955.

Question 7.
Describe some of the policies designed to address caste inequality.
Some policies have been started by Central and State governments to remove caste inequality and these are:

  • Central Government made certain laws to remove caste based disabihties from the society which in turn reduced the caste-based differences.
  • People of lower castes were given land in villages so that they could uplift their social status.
  • People of lower castes have been provided easy loans on lesser interest and on easy instalments to start any business of their choice.
  • Government is taking special care of their settlements and has provided them special facilities.
  • People of lower castes are provided seeds of high yield, fertilisers, machines, etc., for higher yield.
  • Government has started 20 point economic programme in which special care is being taken to provide them employment.
    The main objective of all these programmes is to remove caste inequalities and to uplift the social status of lower castes.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion

Question 8.
How are the Other Backward Class different from the Dalits (or Scheduled Castes)?
Except scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, there is one large class in Indian Society which has remained neglected since ages. This is a very large class which remains lower than higher class and above the scheduled classes in Indian stratification. This remained neglected from ages due to a number of reasons and remained neglected in the development cycle of Indian Society. This class is known as other backward class.

Meaning of Other Backward Class. Backward class is that class of majority of Indian Society which became weak due to social, religious, economic and geographical, factors. After independence, the word ‘Other Backward Class’ was used for them. It is a group of castes between Dwijas and Harijans of Hindu religion. Except this, other lower classes are also included in this except non-Hindus, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

The use of this term was first done in 1917-1918. This word has not been defined in the Constitution earlier. Subhash and B.P. Gupta have given its definition. According to them, “Backward classes are those classes of society which are at lower level as compared to other classes of society due to social, economic and educational disabihties.”

Different states have given different concepts of backwardness. According to Article 340 of Constitution, the President and according to Articles 15 and 16, state governments can establish commission to get economic, social and educational information of backward classes.

Question 9.
What are the major issues of concern to Adivasis today?
What are the major issues of concern of adivasis today? (C.B.S.E. 2012)
Tribes five very much away from our society, culture and civilization because of which they came in contact with our society only in recent times. That is why these to women’s movements. Few social reformers convinced the British to pass certain laws to eradicate such social evils from the society.

After this, Gandhiji motivated the women to come out of their houses and take part in freedom struggle. He was of the view that their disabilities can only be eradicated if they come out of their houses. He stressed on women’s education. That is why thousands of women came out of their houses and took part in the freedom struggle.

After independence, many laws were made for their welfare so that they would be given certain rights like taking education, inheritence, maternity help, good health and right against social evils. Many women movements were initiated from time to time which aroused attention of the society towards their welfare. There are certain issues which are being raised, related to women, in modern times like exploitation of women, rape, eve-teasing, conjugal violence, forced abortion, adverse sex ratio, dowry related deaths, etc.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion

Question 11.
In what sense can one say that ‘disability is as much a social as a physical thing’?
The term differently abled has various assumptions. Terms like mentally challenged, visually impaired and physically imparied have replaced the more negative terms like crippled, retarded or lame.

The disabled are known as disabled not because they are biologically disabled but because society renders them so. The social meaning of diability has more than one dimension. Disability and poverty both are closely related with each other.

A number of factors contribute to the incidences of disability among poor such as malnutrition, weakness in mother due to frequent child births, accidents in over-crowded homes, not enough immunisation programmes, etc. The ratio of disability is higher among poor classes as compared to those living in modern societies.

Further more, disability creates and exacerbates poverty by increasing isolation and economic strain, not just for the individual but for the family. It is a hard fact that more disabled people can be found among the poorest in poor countries. Therefores, it is correct to say that disability is as much a social as a physical thing.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion

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