## Physical Education Class 12 Notes Unit 1 Planning in Sports

→ Meaning of Planning: Planning is the process of deciding in advance what is to be done, when is to be done, who is to do it, how is to be done and where is to be done. The success of any competition depends upon, how it is organised and planned.

→ Objectives of Planning:

The various objectives of planning are as follows:

- To reduce the chances of mistakes.
- To increase the efficiency.
- To reduce unnecessary pressure of urgency.
- To keep good control over the procedure.
- To facilitate proper coordination.
- To ensure safety during competition.
- To provide appropriate environment for the competition.
- To perform activities under expert supervision.

Various Committees and their Responsibilities (Pre, during and post):

The various committees and their roles are described below:

Name of the Committee | Roles and Responsibilities |

1. Publicity Committee | Announcement of date, venue, and advertising any other information about the event to the public. |

2. Boarding and Lodging Committee | Arranging accommodation and food for the participating teams and its players. |

3. Reception Committee | Welcoming the chief guests and important personnel in the inauguration or closing ceremony of the event. |

4. Decoration and Ceremony Committee | Decorating the sports stadium or the ceremony area during the inauguration, or presentation. |

5. Transportation Committee | Providing transport to various national and international teams involved in the event. |

6. Grounds and Equipment Committee | Preparing suitable ground/field for the event, for example, a cricket pitch or a football ground. |

7. Committee for Entertainment and Refreshments | Providing refreshment and snacks to the chief guests, officials and competitors. |

8. Committee on Entries and Programmes | Sending entry forms to the various institutions, arranging seats for guests and spectators and preparing fixtures of teams participating in the competition. |

9. Committee for Officials | Selecting officials, judges, referees, starters, umpires, recorders, scorers, etc. for the events. |

10. Announcement Committee | Making several important announcements during the conduct of the event, e.g., names of the players during the presentation ceremony, while substituting a player, etc. |

11. First Aid Committee | Consisting of well-qualified doctors, physicians and health experts, it is responsible for taking care of health of the players, or officials during an injury or mishappening. |

For successful organisation of the sports meet, committees are formed under three heads:

- Pre-meet committees: like publicity, grounds and equipment, reception committee.
- During-meet committees: like refreshment, transport committee.
- Post-meet committees: like award committee.

Tournament: Knock-out, League and Combination:

→ Tournament: A tournament is a series of competitions between various teams playing a particular game according to a fixed schedule where a winner is decided. Planning is an important aspect of organising a tournament. To organise a tournament, many factors have to be considered. Some of them have been listed below:

- Number of teams participating
- Available ground and court facilities
- Available equipments
- Availability of officials
- Time duration of the tournament

→ Types of Tournament: The various types of tournaments are mentioned below:

→ Knock-out or Elimination Tournament: In a knock-out tournament, winner of each match advances in the tournament and the loser gets eliminated. It means that the defeated team/player does not get a second opportunity and opportunities are only given to the winning teams/players.

→ League or Round Robin Tournament: In this type of tournament, each team plays with every other team once, if it is a single league tournament. In a double league tournament, each team plays twice with every other team. In these types of tournaments, every team plays with every other team irrespective of victory or defeat. It can be called the best type of tournament because it provides the maximum number of opportunities to each team/player to demonstrate its efficiency.

→ Combination Tournament:

Combination tournaments are conducted when the matches are to be played on group basis or zonal basis. As a matter of fact, these tournaments depend on the suitability of the activity, the number of participating teams and the areas and distance from which they come to participate. After that, winner of each zone can participate at national level. Depending upon the number of teams in each zone and the availability of time, the tournament can be organised on the basis of knock-out or league and after that at national level, the tournament can also be conducted either on knock-out or league basis.

Main combinations of a tournament are:

- Knock-out cum Knock-out
- League cum League
- Knock-out cum League
- League cum Knock-out

→ Procedure to Draw Fixtures: Knock-out (Bye and Seeding) and League (Staircase and Cyclic): The success of a tournament depends upon suitable fixture. Tournaments are played in various forms of fixture. Fixture is a process of arranging the teams in a systematic order in various groups for competitive fights for physical activity. In other words, it is a set-up of various teams for competitive matches where they play in the systematic order as per fixture schedule.

→ Fixtures in Knock-out Tournaments: In such tournaments, some teams may be given a bye and some are given seeding if the number of competitors or competing teams are not a multiple of 2.

→ Bye: When the number of entries in a knock-out tournament is not a power of two, we have to give byes to teams so that only four teams are left in the semi-finals. All the byes have to be given in the first round because a rest in the beginning does not give any advantage to a player or a team. The number of byes should be such that the number of contestants left should be in the power of two, i.e., 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 etc. To arrive at the number of byes required, we subtract the number of contestants (say 11) from the next higher power of two (in this case 16). Byes should be distributed equally or as equally as possible, between the upper and the lower halves.

→ Seeding: There may be situations in a tournament that strong teams compete with weak teams or all strong teams are grouped in one half. There may also be a possibility that strong teams do not win their preliminary matches which may be a straight elimination of the team. Seeding method is used to avoid such kind of situations. If two teams need seeding, then they are kept at the top of the upper half and bottom of the lower half in the arrangement. All top teams except seeded teams are kept in the fixture by lots.

For the selection of strong teams, their previous performances must also be kept in mind, to keep them at their appropriate places.

→ Fixtures in League Tournaments: The methods used for drawing up fixtures in league tournaments are:

→ Staircase Method: In this method, fixtures are made exactly on the pattern of a staircase. This is the easiest method as no byes are given in this method and there is no problem of odd or even numbers of teams.

→ Cyclic Method: In this method, when the number of the participating teams is an even number, one team is fixed at top right hand position and the rest team numbers follow in ascending order consecutively on the right side downwards and left side upwards. But when the total number of teams is an odd number, a bye is used at the right top place.

Rest procedure remains unchanged. Rotation is done in clockwise direction. If the number of teams is an even number, the number of rounds in this case will be (N-1). To the contrary, if is an odd number, the number of rounds will remain equal to the number of teams i.e., N.

→ Method of Deciding the Winner in a League Tournament

→ British Method:

Total possible points = \(\frac{\text { Total points obtained }}{\text { Total possible points }} \times 100\)

The following way is used to give the points.

Winner of the match = 2 points

Loser of the match = 0 point

Draw/Tie = 1 point

→ American Method:

Percentage = \(\frac{\text { Matches won }}{\text { Total matches played }} \times 100\)