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The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Questions and Answers History Chapter 1
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The Rise of Nationalism in Europe NCERT Intext Questions and Answers
Summarise the attributes of a nation, as Renan understands them. Why, in his view, are nations important?
Ernst Renan was a French philosopher. According to him, the attributes of a nation are:
- A nation is not formed by a common language, race, religion or territory.
- Instead a nation is formed by common capital, common glories, endeavours, sacrifice and devotion of a long past and common will.
- A nation is a large scale solidarity. Its existence is a daily plebiscite. Its inhabitants have the right to be consulted in reference of large scale solidarity.
- A nation never has any real interest in annexing or holding on to a country against its will.
- The existence of nations is not only a good thing but also a necessity.
Nations, according to Renan are important because
- Their existence is a guarantee of liberty.
- This liberty would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master.
Describe the political ends that list hopes to achieve through economic measures.
In 1834, a customs union known as Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states. This union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two. Besides this, the aim of this union was to bind the Germans economically into a nation by strengthening the nation materially through its protection of interests externally and stimulating its internal productivity. It must awake and raise national sentiment through a fusion of individual and provincial interests.
What is the caricaturist trying to depict?
(See figure 6 on Textbook Page 11).
The caricature dates back to C. 1820. It represents liberal nationalists. It attacks on the autocratic regimes which were set up in Europe in 1815. They did not tolerate criticism and dissent, and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic governments. Most of them imposed censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers, books, plays and songs and reflected the ideas of liberty and freedom. The raised hand and muzzled mouths in the caricature signify freedom of thought, but not speech.
Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.
Language plays a major role in the creation of national identity. Language groups often become synonymous with regional geographical identities i.e. the adjacent area where speakers of a particular language are found.
Popular traditions also reflect a shared cultural heritage and history. They help express and shape national feelings by creating a sense of shared heritage and common cultural past as the basis of a nation.
Describe the cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising. Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist.
In 1845, the Silesian weavers revolted against contractors who supplied them raw material and gave them orders for finished textiles but drastically reduced their payments. These weavers marched in pairs up to the mansion of their contractor demanding higher wages. But they were treated with scorn and threats alternately.
The angry weavers then forced their way into the contractor’s house, smashed its window panes, furniture etc. They also broke into the storehouse and plundered it of supplies of cloth which they tore to shreds. The contractor fled with his family to a neighbouring village. He returned 24 hours later having requisitioned the army. The journalist shows deep sympathy for the poor weavers. He wants justice for them.
Compare the positions on the question of women’s rights voiced by the three writers cited above. What do they reveal about liberal ideology?
(Read Source C on Textbook Page 17)
(i) The liberal politician Carl Welcker, an elected member of the Frankfurt Parliament, says that woman is weaker than man and her activities are restricted to home and hearth. She is expected to look after the family and children. Equality between man and woman would only endanger harmony and destroy the dignity of the family.
Louise Otto-Peters was a political activist who founded a woman’s journal and subsequently a feminist political association. According to her, men who try to gain freedom and liberty for all do not obey this but their untiring efforts are intended for the welfare of only men. Thus, she was in favour of women’s liberty.
An anonymous reader says that it is a grave mistake if we discriminate against women on the basis of gender. Women should not be deprived of the right to vote particularly in a society in which an illiterate man like a cattle herder enjoys this right. Thus, we can infer that Louise Otto-Peters and the anonymous writer are in the favour of women’s rights of liberty and equality but Carl Welcker is against this idea.
History Class 10 Chapter 1 NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers
Write a note on:
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini.
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour
(c) The Greek War of Independence
(d) Frankfurt Parliament
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini: Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary born in Geneva in 1807. He became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. At the age of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He subsequently founded two more underground societies – Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne. The members of Young Europe were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
He opposed monarchy and favoured democratic republics. He believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. He wanted to see Italy as a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations. This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty. Mazzini’s vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour: Count Camillo de Cavour was born at Turin in 1810. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French better than Italian. He became the Chief Minister of King Victor Emannuel II, the ruling king of Sardinia Piedmont and played a major role in the unification of Italy. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat.
He was rather a diplomat who tactfully entered into an alliance with France and helped Sardinia- Piedmont in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Guiseppe Garibaldi marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and drove out the Spanish rulers. In 1861, Italy was finally unified and Victor Emannuel II was proclaimed king of United Italy.
(c) The Greek War of Independence: Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks which began in 1821. Nationalist in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many West Europeans who were sympathetic towards ancient Greek culture. Poets and artists projected Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against the Ottoman Empire. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople took place in 1832 which recognised Greece as an independent nation.
(d) Frankfurt Parliament: In the German regions, there were a large number of political associations whose members were middle-class professionals, businessmen, prosperous artisans. They came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly. On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul. They drafted a constitution for a German nation. It was to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament. The King of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm IV was offered the crown but he rejected it to join other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly.
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles: Women participated in large numbers in the liberal movement. They formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and took part in political meetings and demonstrations. In spite of that they were denied the voting rights during the election of the Assembly. When the Frankfurt parliament was converted in the Church of St. Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
Analyse the measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
The French revolutionaries took many steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French
- The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
- A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
- The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
- New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
- A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
- Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
- Regional dialects were discouraged and French became the common language of the nation.
Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
How had the female figures become an allegory of the nation during the nineteenth century in Europe. Analyse.
Marianne and Germania were female allegories used by artists in the nineteenth century in France and Germany respectively to represent the abstract idea of the nation in concrete form. This was a way to personify a nation.
In France, she has christened Marianne. It was a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it. The images of Marianne were marked on coins and stamps. Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, she wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
Briefly trace the process of German unification.
German unification was a long and complicated process. It took a long time to unite Germany into one country and the credit goes to Bismarck. Its process includes-
(i) In the early nineteenth century, Germany was a loose confederation of 39 states. This confederation was earlier set by Napoleon. In May 1848, various political associations convened the Frankfurt parliament. It tried its best to unify Germany under the leadership of Friedrich Wilhem IV, King of Prussia. But all its efforts failed when the king rejected the offer.
(ii) Prussia then took the charge of German unification. It was most powerful among 39 states and also got support from the large landowners called Junkers. Its Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck, the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
(iii) Bismarck fought three wars over seven years with Denmark (Danish-Prussian War 1864), Austria (Austro-Prussian War 1866) and France (France-Prussian War 1870-71). Prussia emerged as victorious and with it the process of unification completed.
(iv) The Prussian King, William I was proclaimed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871.
What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Napoleon was a great administrator. He brought many changes to make an efficient administrative system-
- The Civil Code of 1804, usually known as the Napoleonic Code, abolished all privileges based on birth.
- It established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
- Napoleon also introduced many reforms even in those territories which came under his control. He simplified administrative divisions in the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, Italy and Germany.
- He abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
- In towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication systems were also improved.
These reforms proved to be a boon for peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen who could now enjoy freedom to a great extent.
Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. For the new middle classes, freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law were the bases of idea of liberalism.
Political Perspective: From the political perspective, the idea of liberalism gave emphasis on the concept of government by consent. It was against autocracy and clerical privileges and favoured a constitution and a representative government.
Social Perspective: Liberals emphasised equality of all before the law and individual freedom. They also emphasised inviolability of private property. The issue of extending the voting rights to women was given due importance by the liberals. It was, therefore, when liberal movements were started, thousands of women came out of their homes and participated actively in these movements.
Economic Perspective: The emerging middle class in France was in favour of economic liberalisation. Multiple currencies, units of weights and measurement and tariff barriers worked as obstacles for economic activities. The new commercial class demanded a unified economic territory so that there could be free movement of goods, capital and people.
Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
The contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe can be assessed through the following three examples:
- In France, a single language was promoted. It helped greatly in creating a sense of common identity among the people of France.
- In Poland, use of Polish language came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
- In Germany, the revolutionaries promoted the folk culture (folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances) to create a sense of common identity among the people.
Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
Several nations developed in Europe over the nineteenth century; for example, Italy, Germany, Greece, Poland, Belgium, etc.
(i) Italy: Italy had a long history of political fragmentation. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multi national Habsburg Empire. It became a nation because of the efforts of Cavour. He made strategic alliances with France to defeat the Austrian forces. After several wars, Italy came to be unified. It emerged as a nation-state.
(ii) Greece: Greece proclaimed independence from Ottoman Empire by claiming its ancient culture which was entirely different from a Muslim empire. Many Greeks living in exile also supported this movement. The above examples show that various factors helped in the development of nation-states over the nineteenth century. In most of the cases, a history of shared culture, exploitation of the poor by the powerful and the origin of liberalism worked as catalyst in developing the sense of nationalism among the people of Europe.
How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
The evolution of nationalism in Britain was a different case compared to the rest of Europe.
(i) In Britain, the formation of the nation-states was not the result of a sudden revolution. It was the result of a long-drawn-out process. There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones, such as English, Welsh, Scot and Irish.
(ii) All these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in power, it was able to dominate the other nationalities of the British Isles.
(iii) This resulted in the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain in which England was the dominant partner. It began to subdue other ethnic groups in a very systematic way.
(iv) The Catholic clans that inhabited the Scottish Highlands suffered terrible repression whenever they attempted to assert their independence. Ireland suffered a similar fate. It was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
(v) A new ‘British nation’ was forged through the propagation of a dominant English culture. The symbols of the new Britain such as the British flag, the national anthem and the English language were actively promoted and the older nations survived only as subordinate partners in this union.
Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
The area called the Balkans was the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871.
There were many reasons behind it-
(i) The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
(ii) The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
(iii) All through the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire tried to strengthen itself through modernisation and internal reforms but achieved little success. One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.
(iv) The Balkan peoples used history and national identity to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers. Hence, the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their independence.
(v) The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others. Matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry. During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies. These rivalries were very evident in the way the Balkan problem unfolded. Each power was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans, and extending its own control over the area.
Find out more about the changes in print technology in the last 100 years. Write about the changes, explaining why they have taken place, what their consequences have been.
- The earliest kind of print technology involved hand printing.
- From AD 594 onwards, books were printed by rubbing paper.
- Then came woodblock printing in which paper, ink and carved wooden blocks were used.
- In the 1430s, Gutenberg’s printing press came into being.
He developed metal types for each of the 26 characters of the Roman alphabet and devised a way of moving them around so as to compose different words of the text. This came to be known as the moveable type printing machine.
- Then came electrically operated presses, automatic, paper reels, photoelectric controls of colour register.
Class 10 History Chapter 1 NCERT Intext Activity Questions and Answers
In what way do you think this print (see Fig. 1 on Textbook, Page 3) depicts a utopian vision?
‘Utopian vision’ means that it is depicting something idealistic. The French artist Frederic Sorrieu visualises a dream of world made up of ‘democratic and social Republics’. Interestingly, at the time when Sorrieu created this image, the German peoples did not yet exist as a united nation – the flag they carry is an expression of liberal hopes in 1848 to unify the numerous German speaking principalities in a nation-state under a democratic constitution. So, what has Sorrieu showed in the print is an idealistic or utopian vision.
Describe the caricature given on Textbook Page 20. How does it represent the relationship between Bismarck and the elected deputies of Parliament? What interpretation of democratic processes is the artist trying to convey?
- The caricature depicts Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany as holding a whip while leading the Parliament. The whip signifies that he is an unkind man who believes in the rule with an iron hand. The deputies who were elected are afraid of him and so are hiding under their tables.
- The caricature depicts the dominance of Bismarck over the deputies.
- The artist is trying to convey that the democratic process in Germany was very weak and the roots of constitutionalism were poor.
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