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The Indian Constitution Class 8 Questions and Answers Civics Chapter 1
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Civics Class 8 Chapter 1 NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers
Why does a democratic country need a Constitution?
There are several reasons that explain why a democratic country needs a Constitution. Some are mentioned below:
- The Constitution lays out important guidelines that govern decisions making within the various societies of the country. The Constitution defines the nature of a country’s political system.
- It even lays down the ideals that form the basis of the kind of country that the citizens aspire to live in.
- The Constitution in the democracy even lays down the rules that guard against the misuse of authority by the political leaders.
- The Constitution helps its citizens by protecting against the decisions that adversely affect on the larger principles that the country believes in.
Look at the wordings of the two documents given below. The first column is from the 1990 Nepal Constitution. The second column is from the more recent Interim Constitution of Nepal.
1990 Constitution of Nepal Part 7: Executive
2007 Interim Constitution Part 5: Executive
|Article 35: Executive Power: The executive power of the kingdom of Nepal shall be exercised exclusively by His Majesty and the Council of Ministers.||Article 37: Executive power: The executive power of Nepal shall be vested in the council of Ministers.|
What is the difference in who exercises ‘Executive Power’ in the above two Constitutions of Nepal? Keeping this in mind, why do you think Nepal needs a new Constitution today?
The difference is that in 1990 Constitution of Nepal, the power had been vested in the hands of the king of Nepal and the Council of the Ministers.
- Nepal needed a new Constitution because Nepal needed to establish democracy within the country. And the older Constitution was executed with the power of monarch and the old Constitution did not reflect even the ideal of the country the Nepal people wanted and for what they fought a long time for.
What would happen if there were no restrictions on the power of elected representatives?
In democracy we choose our leaders so they can exercise power with responsibility on our behalf, And if there were no restrictions on the power of elected representatives then there was possibility that these leaders might misuse their authority. So, the restrictions safeguard against the misuse of powers by any of the elected representatives.
In each of the following situations, identify the minority. Write one reason why you think it is important to respect the views of the minority in each of these situations.
(a) In a school with 30 teachers, 20 of them are male.
(b) In a city, 5 per cent of the population are Buddhists.
(c) In a factory mess for all employees, 80 per cent are vegetarians.
(d) In a class of 50 students, 40 belong to more well-off families.
(a) Female teachers are in minority. Minority of female teachers can lead to over dominance of male teachers over the authority that could lead to creation of a male preferrable administration. Voice of the females will not be raised at maximum times and if raised they will be left unheard. So it is important that the opinions and efforts of the female teachers are not be obstructed for their minority status.
(b) In this case Buddhist are in minority. And as according to the right to profess any religion of our choice the religion followed by any citizen must be respected equally.
(c) Non-vegetarians are in minorities as they are only 20%. As the food choice depends on person to person therefore there should be freedom on what to eat or not without any obstructions.
(d) Students of poor families would be called minorities while students of well-off families are in majority. It is wrong to discriminate anyone on the basis of economic status.
The column on the left lists some of the key features of the Indian Constitution. In the other column write two sentences, in your own words, on why you think this feature is important:
|Federalism Separation of Powers Fundamental Rights Parliamentary Form of Government|
|Federalism||Refers to the existence of more than one level of government in the country. So it allows each state of the country to enjoy autonomy but keeping in mind the central power as the centre holds supreme power and authority.|
|Separation of Powers||It allows the 3 organs of the state, that are executive, legislative and judiciary to exercise different powers and each organ acts as a check on the other organs of the state and this ensures the balance of power between all three.|
|Fundamental Rights||It protects the citizens against any arbitrary and absolute exercise of power by the state.|
|Parliamentary Form of Government||It upholds universal adult franchise because while making the Constitution, the Constituent Assembly members felt that freedom struggle had prepared the masses for universal adult suffrage and that this would help in encouraging democratic mindset. Its significance shows that the people of India have a direct role in electing their representatives and every citizen of the country irrespective of his/her social background can also contest election. The representatives will be accountable to the people.|
Colour in the following countries in this map:
(a) Colour India in red.
(b) Colour Nepal in green.
(c) Colour Bangladesh in yellow.
Do it by yourself
Class 8 Civics Chapter 1 NCERT Intext Activity Questions and Answers
(Page No. 6)
Discuss with your teacher what you understand by the term ‘constitutive’. Provide one example of ‘constitutive rules’ from your everyday life.
The term constitutive means the fundamental rules that are compulsory to be followed.
According to the rules of football if the ball touches the arm of any players except goalkeeper then this is considered a foul.
These types of rules help us define the game and also in distinguishing one game from another. They are fundamental to the game, we can also call them the constitutive rules of the game.
Why do the people of Nepal want a new Constitution?
The Nepal people do not want to continue with the previous Constitution when Nepal was the monarchial state. The previous constituion did not reflect the ideals of the country that they wanted Nepal to be, and they fought for it. That is the reason why the people of Nepal want a new Constitution.
In what way is the class monitor misusing his power?
He is misusing his power by making false complaints.
In which of the following situations is a minister misusing his power:
(a) refuses to sanction a project of his ministry for sound technical reasons;
(b) threatens to send his security staff to rough up his neighbour;
(c) calls up the police station asking them not to register a complaint that is likely to be filed against his relative.
(b) and (c)
Read the following storyboard and answer the question that follow:
Who is in a minority in the above storyboard? In what way is this minority being dominated by the decision taken by the majority?
Girls are in minority. Girls always have to do what boys wants because they are in majority.
Read the following storyboard and answer the question that follow:
Why was Shabnam happy that she had not watch TV? What would you have done in a similar situation?
Shabnam was happy that she did not watch TV as she had to revise the last two chapters left for test and so many questions were asked in the test from the last two chapters.
Discuss the difference between state and Government with your teacher.
‘Government’ is responsible for administering and enforcing laws. The government can change with elections. The state on the other hand refers to a political institution that represents a sovereign people who occupy a definite territory.
Which Fundamental Rights will the following situations violate:
(a) If a 13-year old child is working in a factory manufacturing carpets.
(b) If a politician in one state decides to not allow labourers from other states to work in his state.
(c) If a group of people are not given permission to open a Telugu-medium school in Kerala.
(d) If the government decides not to promote an officer of the armed forces because she is a woman.
(a) Right against Exploitation.
(b) Right to Freedom
(c) Cultural and Educational Right.
(d) Right to Equality.
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