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Outcomes of Democracy Class 10 Questions and Answers Civics Chapter 7
Make your learning experience enjoyable by preparing from the quick links available on this page. Use the Class 10 SST Civics Chapter 7 NCERT Solutions and get to know different concepts involved. All the Solutions are covered as per the latest syllabus guidelines. Knowing the NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Questions and Answers helps students to attempt the exam with confidence.
Outcomes of Democracy NCERT Intext Questions and Answers
Democracy is a rule of the majority. The poor are in majority. So democracy must be a rule of the poor. How can this not be the case?
Democracy has been influenced by the rich and the affluent class who impacts its decisions. The poor may constitute majority in their share of voting but lack resources. They also often fail to influence its decisions. Political leaders so elected are generally insensitive to the problems that the poor are facing. Though all individuals in a democracy have equal weight in electing representatives but a large section of them are denied economic equality. This large section is constituted by the poor who face grave economic inequalities. They are victims of poverty. And the small number of ultra-rich enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and incomes.
All you are saying is the democracy ensures that people do not break each other’s head. This is not harmony. Should we be happy about it?
When democracy tries to accommodate social divisions, it does not mean it ensures that people do not break each other’s head. No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups. But in a democracy we can certainly learn to respect these differences and we can also evolve mechanisms to negotiate the differences. We should be happy that we can live together with dignity and can enjoy our freedom, with all our differences only when there is a democratic set up. Non-democratic regimes often suppress internal social differences.
Civics Class 10 Chapter 7 NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers
How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?
(i) Democracy produces an accountable government because-
- It provides regular, free and fair elections.
- It carries open public debate on major policies and legislations.
- It gives citizens the right to information about the government and its functioning.
(ii) Democracy produces a responsive government because the government is formed by the elected representatives of the people. These representatives discuss the problems of the society and make policies and programmes accordingly. Afterwards, they implement these policies and programmes.
(iii) Democracy produces a legitimate government because it is people’s own government. It is they who through their representatives form and run the government for themselves.
What are the conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities?
The two conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities are—
(i) People in general will have to understand that democracy is not simply the rule by majority opinion. The majority always needs to work with the minority so that governments function to represent the general view.
(ii) It is also necessary that rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic groups etc. Rule by majority means that in case of every decision or in case of every election, different persons and groups may form a majority. Democracy remains democracy only as long as every citizen has a chance of being in majority at some point of time. If someone is barred from being in majority on the basis of birth, then the democratic rule ceases to be accommodative for that person or group.
Give arguments to support or oppose the following assertions:
(a) Industrialised countries can afford democracy but the poor need dictatorship to become rich.
(b) Democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens.
(c) Government in poor countries should spend less on poverty reduction, health, education and spend more on industries and infrastructure.
(d) In democracy all citizens have one vote, which means that there is absence of any domination and conflict.
(a) Experiences show that poor countries achieved better economic growth under dictatorship. But this cannot be supported at the cost of other positive aspects like dignity and freedom of the citizens, that only democracy can provide.
(b) People have over-expectations from democracy. As they get some benefits of democracy, they ask for more and want to make democracy even better. They don’t want to see inequality of income between different citizens and begin to blame democracy for not reducing it. But the fact is that inequality of income may be due to various social ailments and economic conditions such as country’s population size, global situation, etc. So it should not be left to democracy alone to reduce inequality of income between different citizens.
(c) This argument is not acceptable because health and education are the basic needs which people want to fulfil at all cost. It is very unfortunate if democracy fails to fulfil these needs of its people. Spending on industries and infrastructure is not wise if people are poor, malnutritious and illiterate. What is advisable is that more money should be spent on people’s health and education. Needless to say that human resources is the greatest asset for a nation. Only healthy and educated people can bring better future.
(d) Democracies all over the world are based on political equality. It means all individuals have equal weight in electing representatives. Parallel to the process of bringing individuals into the political arena on an equal footing, we find growing economic inequalities. A small number of ultra rich enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and incomes. Those at the bottom of the society have very little to depend upon. These rich people dominate the poor. We also see conflict of interest in a democratic set up. But this is a truth that democracy provides the means to negotiate and resolve them.
Identify the challenges to democracy in the following descriptions. Also suggest policy institutional mechanism to deepen democracy in the given situations:
(a) Following a High Court directive a temple in Odisha that had separate entry door for dalits and non- dalits allowed entry for all from the same door.
(b) A large number of farmers are committing suicide in different states of India.
(c) Following allegation of killing of three civilians in Gandwara in a fake encounter by Jammu and Kashmir police, an enquiry has been ordered.
(a) Here people were discriminated on the basis of their birth in a particular caste or social group. This denied the democratic principle that all are equal irrespective of their birth, caste, religion, etc. Here, the challenge to democracy was to provide equal status to all citizens.
(b) This reflects the failure of democracy in terms of its policies and programmes. In a democracy, the government is accountable to safeguard the interests of all social groups including farmers. Here, the challenge to democracy is to provide farmers with subsidies which will help them earn profit to live their life comfortably.
(c) This reflects the failure of democracy in securing the dignity and freedom of the people.
Following policy/institutional mechanism can deepen democracy
- People should be promoted to respect differences between the social groups.
- People should be promoted to resolve dispute through negotiations.
- People should be promoted to pay taxes in time so that the poor can be provided with a dignified life.
- Government should make policies regarding the discriminated and disadvantaged groups of the society.
- Institutions should be made to evaluate the implementation of various policies and programmes.
In the context of democracies, which of the following ideas is correct – democracies have successfully eliminated:
A. conflicts among people
B. economic inequalities among people
C. differences of opinion about how marginalised sections are to be treated
D. the idea of political inequality
C. differences of opinion about how marginalised sections are to be treated.
In the context of assessing democracy which among the following is odd one out. Democracies need to ensure:
Nannu is a daily wage earner. He lives in Welcome Mazdoor Colony, a slum habitation in East Delhi. He lost his ration card and applied for a duplicate one in January 2004. He made several rounds to the local Food & Civil Supplies office
A. free and fair elections
B. dignity of the individual
C. majority rule
D. equal treatment before law
C. majority rule
Studies on political and social inequalities in democracy show that
A. democracy and development go together.
B. inequalities exist in democracies.
C. inequalities do not exist under dictatorship.
D. dictatorship is better than democracy.
B. inequalities exist in democracies.
Read the passage below:
for the next three months. But the clerks and officials would not even look at him, leave alone do his job or bother to tell him the status of his application. Ultimately, he filed an application under the Right to Information Act asking for the daily progress made on his application, names of the officials, who were supposed to act on his application and what action would be taken against these officials for their inaction. Within a week of filing application under the Right to Information Act, he was visited by an inspector from the Food Department, who informed him that the card had been made and he could collect it from the office.
When Nannu went to collect his card next day, he was given a very warm treatment by the Food & Supply Officer (FSO), who is the head of a Circle. The FSO offered him tea and requested him to withdraw his application under the Right to Information, since his work had already been done. What does Nannu’s example show? What impact did Nannu’s action have on officials? Ask your parents their experiences when they approach government officials to attend to their problems.
Nannu’s example shows that the Right to Information Act is important as it compels the government officials to take prompt action and to inform the people in time. The officials got afraid of the actions to be taken against them and completed Nannu’s work.
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