Raju

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 English Communicative Set 5

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 English Communicative Set 5

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 English Communicative Set 5

These Sample papers are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 English Communicative. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 English Communicative Set 5

Time allowed: 3 hours
Maximum marks: 80

General Instructions

❖ The question papers divided into three sections :
Section A : Reading 20 marks
Section B : Writing and Grammar 30 marks
Section C : Literature 30 marks
All questions are compulsory.
❖ You may attempt any section at a time.
❖ All questions of that particular section must be attempted in the correct order.

SECTION-A : READING
(Attempt all question from this section)

Question 1.
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
1. Paint is a substance, usually a liquid, that is applied to surfaces as a protective coating or decoration. Opaque paints colour and completely hide the material under them. Translucent paints coat the material without hiding its characteristics.
2. Almost all solid materials can be painted. Paints are used as protection against rust, weathering and chemical corrosion. Brightly coloured paints are used as warnings, identifying, for example, pipes that are dangerously hot. Liquid paints have two main parts; a pigment and a vehicle. Pigments are finely ground powders that give the paint colour and opacity.
3. In addition, pigments may also affect the texture, water resistance, penetration and wearing characteristics of a paint. Pigments remain in solid form in a paint; they do not dissolve in the vehicle which is a liquid that act as a base for the pigment. This means the pigment is merely suspended in the vehicle. The vehicle usually consists of a binder and a solvent. The binder is the part of the vehicle that holds the paint film together and makes it adhere to a surface.
4. The solvent, also called thinner, is on the other hand a substance that reduces the consistency of paints so that the paints can be applied or removed easily. Solvents are usually volatile and evaporates completely leaving a solid film of pigment and binder on the surface. Turpentine, mineral spirits, solvent naphtha, grain alcohol and water are common paint solvents. Solid or powder paints differ from other kinds in that they contain no vehicle.
5. Until the late 19th century, pigments and binders had to be mixed by the painter. Ready-mixed paints were developed in the 1860s and gained wide acceptance in the 1880s. Since that time improvements in the quality of ready-mixed paints have been made continuously. By the mid-20th century, the development of synthetic resins and rubbers caused a sudden increase in the numbers and kinds of paints available. The synthetic-based paints often did the job faster, better and more easily than earlier paints. Among the many other types of synthetic-based paints were latex household paints for both interior and exterior use; acrylic automobile enamels; heat-resistant paints; fluorescent paints and powder paints.

1.1. Attempt any eight of the following questions on the basis of the passage you have read: [1 x 8 = 8]
(i) What is used to hide material under them ?
(ii) What are paints used for ?
(iii) What are the main parts of paint ?
(iv) What makes the paint stick to the surface ?
(v) What helps the paint to be applied smoothly ?
(vi) What are some of the common solvents ?
(vii) When were readymade paints made and accepted ?
(viii) Why are powder paints unique ?
(ix) What did synthetic paints do?

Question 2.
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : [12]
1. Having a dog helps a child learn how to act responsibly. As a dog owner, the child must take care of the animal’s daily needs. A dog is completely dependent on its owner for all its needs, including the need for good health and a safe environment. Furthermore, the owner must take responsibility for the safety of the dog and the safety of the people it comes into contact with. If the child forgets any of these duties and responsibilities or ignores any of the dog’s needs, the dog will suffer. This teaches the child that his responsibility to the dog is more important than his desire to play with his toys, talk on the phone or watch TV. This is true not only for the care of a dog, but also for the care of oneself, another person, or one’s job.
2.Another lesson that a child can learn from having a dog is how to be empathetic. Empathy is the ability to put oneself in another person’s or in this case another creature’s situation and imagine that person’s or creature’s feelings or problems. A dog cannot express itself with speech, so its owner must learn how to interpret its behaviour. Is the dog frightened, aggressive or sick? The result of learning to read a dog’s behaviour is that the child develops empathy. This leads to the child becoming a more considerate and caring person.
3.Being considerate and caring are important characteristics in a good friend. A dog gives unconditional love to its owner. A dog will not stop loving its owner because of a little anger, indifference or neglect. The dog will wait patiently for its owner to pat its head and say a few kind words. This acceptance of the negative qualities and appreciation for the positive qualities of its owner provide a wonderful model of how to be a good friend. A child soon realises that his dog will ’ always listen to him, will always be ready to play with him will always protect him, and will always forgive him. A child who has learned to be a good friend of his dog, will have learned to be good friend too.
4. These are some of the most important lessons a child will ever learn. The benefits of owning a dog will last the child’s entire lifetime. The understanding and appreciation of responsibility, empathy and friendship that a child develops from the experience of having a dog will help him or her grow ’ into a reliable, caring and mature adult.

2.1. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer any four of the following questions in about 30-40 words each: [2 x 4 = 8]
(i) How does having a dog make a child responsible ?
(ii) How does the child learn to prioritise the responsibility ?
(iii) How does the child learn empathy ?
(iv) How does the child learn to become a good friend ?
(v) Sum up the benefits of owning a dog for the child.

2.2. On the basis of your reading of the passage, fill any two of the following blanks with
appropriate words/phrases. [1 x 2 = 2]
(i) A dog is completely dependent on its owner for all its needs, including the need for……..
(ii) ……..is the ability to put oneself in another person’s or in this case another creature’s, situation and imagine that person’s or creature’s…….
(iii) The dog will……….for its owner to pat its head and say a few kind words.

2.3. Attempt any two of the following. Find out the words that mean the same as below:
[1 x 2 = 2]
(i) Accountability (Paragraph 1) :
(ii) Unreserved (Paragraph 3)
(iii) Dependable (Paragraph 4)

SECTION-B : WRITING AND GRAMMAR
(Attempt all question from this section)

Question 3.
(a) You are Rajesh Kumar from Jubilee Hills incharge of an NGO Manna that helps local women in training and employment in sewing and making products and you had purchased 25 sewing machines from Singer Sewing machines and found 10 of them to be defective. Write a letter to the Manager of Singer Sewing Machines,People’s Hospital Road, Pragathi Nagar-Kukatpally, Hyderabad – 500072 complaining of the defects and asking for replacements. [8]

OR

(b) You are Soumya/Sushil of Clarence High School, Richards Town, Bengaluru-5 interested in joining the Association of Bangalore Amatuer Astronomers, Jawaharlal Nehru Planetarium, Sankey Road, Bengaluru-560001 (Karnataka). You wish to join the club. Write a letter to the Director, enquiring about the venue, duration, activities, transportation etc. Invent other necessary details.

Question 4.
Write a short story; in about 200-250 words, with any one set of the cues given below. Give a suitable title to the story.
The dreaded day arrived, Sam was not prepared at all. He was excited that he will experience some freedom… [10]

OR

It was early January, the new year had begun with a blast and soon the Peters were off to a voyage on a cruise ship to…

Question 5.
Fill in any four of the following blanks choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below. Write the answers in your answer-sheet against the correct blank numbers.
[1 x 4 = 4]
(a) Ben writes quickly. He’s……….finished his essay.
(i) already
(ii) been
(iii) for
(iv) yet

(b) I’ve……….to London. I went there in June.
(i) gone
(ii) been
(iii) just
(iv) yet

(c) You can see all the information………..the screen.
(i) at
(ii) in
(iii) at
(iv) on

(d) Could you let me know…………..Friday at the latest.
(i) by
(ii) at
(iii) on
(v) before

(e) Natasha ………..play the piano when she was four.
(i) could
(ii) can
(iii) should
(iv) may

Question 6.
In the following passage one word has been omitted in each line. Write the missing word, in any four sentences of the given paragraph, along with the word that comes before and the word that comes after it in the space provided. [1 x 4 = 4]
Cbse sample papers english set 5 Q.6

Question 7.
Rearrange any four of the following word clusters to make meaningful sentences. [1 x 4 = 4]
(a) was/ as/ watching/ I / the/ him/ ran/suddenly/ away/ ran
(b) week/ accident/ last/ the/happened
(c) washing/ 1/ was/ hair/ the/ when/ my/ rang/ phone
(d) person/the/talked/we/was/ to/ friendly/ very
(e) not/ is/ this/ train/ which/ on/ 1/ travel/normally/ the

SECTION-C : LITERATURE
(Attempt all question from this section)

Question 8.
Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow. Write the answer in your answer sheets in one or two lines only. [1 x 4 = 4]
(a) ‘Gainst death and all obvious enmity
Shall you pace forth; your praise shall still find room.
(i) Who is the ‘you’ that is referred to ? –
(ii) What does the poet predict ?
(iii) What does ‘pace forth’ talk about ? .
(iv) What is the figure of speech in ‘your praise shall still find a room ?’

OR

(b) “It would never do for them to find you in colours.”
(i) Identify the speaker and the listener.
(ii) Who is referred to as ‘them’ in the above statement ?
(iii) Explain ‘in colours’.
(iv) What is the context of the above remark ?

Question 9.
Answer any four of the following questions in 30-40 words each: [2 x 4 = 8]
(i) How the wall has become a part of the mirror’s heart ? What separates them ?
(ii) When and why did Ali’s attitude change ?
(iii) What kind of computer fascinated Michael and his dad? Why ?
(iv) What message does the poet want to convey in Ozymandias ?
(v) What did Patol Babu do for a living after having been retrenched ?

Question 10.
Attempt any one out of the two following long answer type questions in 100-120 words. [8]
(a) What are psycho-drive games ? Describe the four games played by Michael.

OR

(b) How did Mark Anthony outdo a great orator like Brutus and turn the mob against him ?

Question 11.
(a) Answer the following question based on prescribed novel text for extended reading in about 200-250 words. [10]

The Diary of a Young Girl

(i) What impression does one get on the manner in which the Gestapo treat the Jews ?

OR

(ii) What are your impressions on Mr. Keesing, Anne’s Math teacher?

(b) Answer the following question based on the prescribed novel text for extended reading in about 200-250 words.
(i) Write a note on Helen Keller’s education.

OR

(ii) Describe Christmas before and after Miss Sullivan came in Helen’s ‘The Story of My Life’.

ANSWERS
SECTION-A

Answer 1.
1.1 (i) Opaque paints are used to completely hide the material under them.
(ii) Paints are used as protection against rust, weathering and chemical corrosion.
(iii) Liquid paints have two main parts; a pigment and a vehicle.
(iv) The binder is the part of the vehicle that holds the paint film together and makes it adhere to a surface.
(v) The solvent, also called thinner, is a substance that reduces the consistency of paints so that the paints can be applied or removed easily and smoothly.
(vi) Turpentine, mineral spirits, solvent naphtha, grain alcohol and water are common paint solvents.
(vii) Ready-mixed paints were developed in the 1860s and gained wide acceptance in the 1880s.
(viii) Powder paints are unique because they have no vehicle in them.
(ix) The synthetic-based paints often do the job faster, better and more easily than other paints.

Answer 2.
2.1. (i) The child becomes responsible as he or she needs to take care of the animal’s every need and it is totally dependent on its owner for its good health and environment.
(ii) If the child forgets or ignores any of the dog’s needs, the dog will suffer. This teaches the child that his responsibility to the dog is more important than his desire to play with his toys, talk on the phone or watch TV.
(iii) A dog cannot express itself with speech, so the child learns how to interpret its behaviour. Is the dog frightened, aggressive or sick ? The result of learning to read a dog’s behaviour is that the child develops empathy.
(iv) The unconditional love shown by the dog and the fact that it does not react to anger, indifference or neglect helps the child to become a good friend.
(v) The benefits of owning a dog will last for the child’s entire lifetime. The understanding and appreciation of responsibility, empathy and friendship that a child develops from the experience of having a dog will help him or her grow into a reliable, caring and mature adult.

2.2. (i) A dog is completely dependent on its owner for all its needs, including the need for good health and a safe environment.
(ii) Empathy is the ability to put oneself in another person’s or in this case another creature’s situation and imagine that person’s or creature’s feelings or problems.
(iii) The dog will wait patiently for its owner to pat its head and say a few kind words

2.3. (i) Responsibility
(ii) Unconditional
(iii) Reliable

SECTION-B

(a)
Rajesh Kumar,
Manna[ NGO]
Jubilee Hills,
Hyderabad-33
5th February, 20 xx
Manager
Singer Sewing Machines,
People’s Hospital Road,
Pragathi Nagar, Kukatpally,
Hyderabad – 500072

Sub.: Complaint of faulty sewing machines

Dear Sir/Madam,

We bought 25 sewing machines from you on 12th January, 20xx and paid ? 30,000/- as advance. I, now, find that ten of the machines have the following faults:
The machine stops working after half an hour and won’t work again for at least an hour. It is commonly understood under the law that the goods you supply must be fit for the purpose. As there was a problem with the goods already when I bought them, I request that you give me a full refund or replace all the ten sewing machines.
I have enclosed a copy of the receipt in support of my claim.
I hope that this issue will be sorted out at your end at the earliest.

Thanking you,

Regards,
Rajesh Kumar.

OR

(b)
Soumya Gopal,
Clarence High School,
Richards Town,
Bengaluru- 5
25th March, 20 x x

Sub.: Application for membership

The Director,
Association of Bengaluru Amatuer Astronomers,
Jawaharlal Nehru Planetarium,
Sankey Road, Bengaluru- 560001.
Dear Sir /Madam

I am writing this letter with the intention of becoming a member of your esteemed organisation. I’m a great admirer and lover of astronomy and I believe I could be an extremely productive member of the group if given a chance.
I have been interested in watching the skies and learning about them and to kindle my interest my father had got me a rudimentary telescope to observe the skies and now I would like to take my interest to the next level.
I, therefore, urge you to consider my application for membership and kindly grant me the same.

Yours sincerely,
Regards,
Soumya Gopal.

Answer 4.

How I Became Organised

The dreaded day arrived, Sam was not prepared at all. He was excited that he will experience some freedom but he was a little nervous when he went to the hostel. He was not good in doing chores. He had his mom and dad to do everything for him. He spent his holidays frolicking as he decided to do ‘ arts and not engineering or medicine which needs a lot of work. Some of his friends were busy studying and being anxious about getting into the right college.
None of this affected Rohit for he was fairly intelligent and above all believed in enjoying life. Now > here he was in a hostel as he chose St. Joseph’s College far from home. It meant freedom but also meant doing your own chores and getting things done.
He was not a fan of putting things in order and keep his clothes cleaned and ironed, as I said earlier, , it was done by his parents. The day he landed in the college hostel, he met his roommate Rohan who was a nice cheerful boy.
As college started, Sam realised that unless he managed time he was going to be in a mess, as there ( were assignments and projects to be done. He enjoyed it but it was time consuming and with all that work, he often returned to a messy bed.
Rohan’s side was clean and tidy and Sam wondered how he managed that. He geared himself up one day and decided to make changes, first in himself and then, the room and in all that he did. He found that it was so much better with organisation and he had enough time for fun too.

OR

Bon Voyage

It was early January, the new year had begun with a blast and soon the Peters were off to a voyage on a cruise ship to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Did you immediately think that the family was off to Mauritius or other exotic islands ? Mr. Peter was of the opinion that India has incredible landscapes that need to be explored by all the Indians and hence the trip to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands started.
The family was excited to experience the voyage and the trip to the islands. The day finally arrived and family got abroad and were led to their luxury cabins. The kids Kenneth and Ashirah were thrilled to their own bunk beds with lights and comfy mattresses. The cabin was wonderful. The family settled and put their luggage away and were ready to go on deck. The children and the father got to the deck and soon the siren blew announcing the departure from the port. The mother soon started to experience sea sickness though it was the mildest swaying of the ship on the seas.
The children enjoyed every bit of the cruise, the swimming pools, the library, the mini theatre where they watched their favourite animated movies. They made friends, relished the sea food, the sea breeze, the gaming arena, soap football and many more activities that kept them occupied for two and half days and soon they were at Port Blair, ready to alight and have more fun. Mrs. Peter was glad to be on land again.

Answer 5.
(a) already
(b) been
(c) on
(d) by
(e) could

Answer 6.
Cbse sample papers english set 5 Ans 6

Answer 7.
(a) As I was watching him, the man suddenly ran away.
(b) The accident happened last week.
(c) I was washing my hair when the phone rang. ‘
(d) The person we talked to was very friendly.
(e) This is not the train on which I normally travel.

SECTION-C

Answer 8.
(a) (i) The ‘you’ in the poem refers to the poet’s friend.
(ii) The poet predicts that his friend’s praise live forever through his rhyme.
(iii) ‘Pace forth’ talks about the fame of the friend that will spread all around the world.
(iv) The figure of speech used in these words is personification.

OR

(b) (i) The speaker is Mrs. Slater and the listener is her daughter Victoria.
(ii) ‘Them’ refers to Mrs. and Mr. Jordan.
(iii) Victoria is wearing colourful clothes whereas she should be wearing a simple mourning dress.
(iv) The above remark is made as Victoria’s grandfather is dead.

Answer 9.
(i) The wall has become a part of the mirror’s heart because it will always be there and its reflection on the mirror is also permanent. They are separated either by the faces or the darkness.
(ii) Ali, whose primary goal was hunting with success at all times finds himself in a position to change his attitude when his daughter Miriam gets married and moves to another place. He soon experiences loneliness and pangs of separation. He turns remorseful and realises that the world is made of both love and sorrow. He quits hunting and spends most of his time in waiting for his daughter’s letter.
(iii) Michael had a Pentium 150 MHz processor complete with RAM, CD ROM, speakers, printers modem and scanner. He had all the games: Tornado, Me Babash, Black Belt etc. He and his dad could not resist any of the new gadgets or gizmos that came to the market.
(iv) The poet conveys a definite message that one day or the other, kingdoms and one’s power and glory will be ravaged with time. The poet’s desires that all of humanity understand that even the mighty and the powerful cannot escape. Time does not discriminate between a king and a beggar.
(v) Patol Babu, after being retrenched, opened a variety store which he had to wind up after five years. He further worked in a Bengali firm but had to quit due to the high handedness of the boss. After that he became an insurance salesman for ten years and later became a scrap iron dealer.

Answer 10.
(a) Psycho-drive games are played as an interaction between the man who plays them and the computer with a virtual reality visor and glove that can bring about a change in what we see. Better still, the action can be controlled by our thoughts. In the story, Michael plays four psycho¬drive games, one after the other. We are taken to the imaginary world of the ‘Wildwest’ and get to see the dusty towns, castles, dragons and dungeons. Sebastian plays the second Sheriff in ‘Wildwest’, the second knight in ‘Dragonquest’ a prisoner in ‘Jail-break’ and a victim in ‘Warzone’. The last game is the most interesting, as the actions of the two, Sebastian and Michael are more organised and in coordination with each other. There is a real thrill with the guns booming and the bombs exploding. In time, they make it to the waiting helicopter which soars into the sky. Both are unhurt. Michael gets his reward. His score touches 40,000,000 winning the jackpot. He cracks the game saving Sebastian this time. In the end, they both communicate in reality and become friends forever. Sebastian asks Michael to keep the games as a token of love and gratitude, moreover, he had earned them.

OR

(b) Mark Anthony proves to be a great orator than Brutus by kindling the mob’s passion rather than reason and logic. He evokes basic passions such as pity and sympathy for Caesar among them. He proves that Caesar was not ambitious and ruthless as portrayed by Brutus and the other conspirators. He worked all his life for the welfare of the people rejecting the crown thrice and showed his love for his people. He uses the mob’s passion to flame over Brutus and his conspirators. He diverts their focus away from his true goals by proving that they were liars and murderers. He plays the role perfectly well which benefited him later.

Answer 11.
(a) (i) Gestapo had the power and authority vested in them to treat the Jews in the most inhuman way possible. Anne makes entries in her diary stating that the Jews were taken to a big camp where they got almost nothing to eat and much less to drink as water was available only for one hour a day. Conditions were very hard with only one toilet and a sink for thousands of people. The heads of men and women were often shaved off. Mr. Alfred Dussel told the residents of the Secret Annexe that many Jews were taken to their dreadful fate. Every night, the grey green military vehicle cruised around the streets and knocked at every door asking if Jews were there. If found hiding or residing, they were taken away from that place. It was similar to the slave-hunting of the early days. The Jews they found were taunted, bullied and beaten until they dropped. They did not spare any one, be it babies, children, women, elderly, pregnant or sick. They were often huddled into the vehicles and filled beyond their capacities treated not at all like human beings. They were all supposed to be sent to their death.

OR

(ii) Mr. Keesing was considered as a very strict teacher but he was not rigidly strict. He expected discipline and silence in his class while he was teaching, which is acceptable. We can see from Anne’s entries that she was talkative which disturbed Mr. Keesing. He punished her by giving her extra homework and asks her to write an essay on ‘A Chatterbox.’ Anne responds by writing a convincing essay and continued to talk. He further asked her to write essays on ‘Quack, Quack, Quack’ and ‘An Incorrigible Chatterbox.’ Anne takes it in her stride, takes help from a friend and writes convincingly essays that talking is a trait that is in her just as her mother making it a genetic characteristic for which she cannot be blamed. Mr. Keesing takes her point of view in a lighter vein and does not reprimand her in the class and even allows her to talk in the class. This was unexpected for Anne as she always thought Mr. Keesing to be very strict. He understands that it would be wrong in asking Anne to stop talking and give her punishments. He reads the poem that Anne wrote to the class and acknowledges it. From these instances we can see that Mr. Keesing can be fun- loving too and not as strict as Anne considers him to be.

(b) (i) Helen Keller (1880 -1968) was a great humanitarian who overcame the challenges of being blind and deaf. Keller’s education began on March 3,1887 when she met Anne Sullivan whom her parents hired to teach her. The relationship she formed with her teacher, Anne Sullivan, continued for over 50 years. With the help of Sullivan, by the time she was seven years old, Keller had learned to finger-spell words and use over 60 hands gestures to communicate her thoughts, ideas, wants and desires. She also learned to read braille and print letters in a block style. She read several classical works, including the Bible, Shakespeare’s Lamb’s Tales, Louisa May Alcott’s Little Women among many others. By the time she was nine years old, she was speaking and reading lips.

Keller’s formal education began in 1888, when she enrolled in the Perkins Institute for the Blind, where she studied for four years. Some of the subjects she studied there were arithmetic, geography and French. She attended the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf in New York and in 1896, she studied at The Cambridge School for Young Ladies to prepare for matriculation at Radcliffe College. She graduated from Radcliffe in 1904 and made history by becoming the first deaf and blind person to obtain a Bachelor of Arts degree and also to be a graduate cum laude. While at Radcliffe, her teacher, friend and companion Anne Sullivan had interpreted lectures and course materials for her.

Keller was a lifelong learner and was a voracious reader of braille books. She continued learning about politics, philosophy, poetry, history, economics, German, Latin and French. Throughout her life, she received several honorary degrees. She became the first to receive one from Harvard University. In addition to Harvard, she received honorary degrees from India, Germany; Temple University, Witwatersrand and Johannesburg, South Africa and the Universities of Glasgow, Scotland.

OR

(ii) In ‘The Story of My Life’ Helen Keller recounts her life before and after “the most important day in all my life” that being the day Annie Sullivan arrives. The book is an autobiographical account of Helen’s first twenty-two years in which Helen attempts to provide inspiration to those who find life’s struggles almost unbearable. Before Anne’s arrival and despite her frustrations, Helen describes Christmases as “a delight.” It is the “smells… and tidbits” that Helen enjoys the most rather than the actual event itself and Helen admits that she is never inspired to rise particularly early in the morning to receive presents.

Helen’s life changes dramatically after Anne Sullivan’s arrival. Helen talks about the family’s first Christmas with Miss Sullivan. Having learnt “language,” Helen can now enjoy the subtleties and “mystery” of Christmas. Now, it is Helen who lies awake at night and who wakes the family early in the morning on Christmas day and who delights in the discovery of presents everywhere. It is the canary that Anne gives her that makes her “cup of happiness overflow.” Therefore, even though Helen loved Christmas before she learnt to communicate effectively, how different it became after Anne entered her life.

We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 English Communicative Set 5 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 English Communicative Set 5, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 4

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 4

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 4

These Sample Papers are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 4

Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum Marks : 80

General Instructions

  • The question paper has 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
  • Marks are indicated against each question.
  • Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are Very Short Answer Type Questions. Each questions carries one mark.
  • Questions from serial number 8 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Answers of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
  • Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  • Question number 26 is a map question. It has two parts 26(A) and 26(B). 26(A) of 2 marks from History and 26(B) of 3 marks from Geography. After completion attach the map inside your answer book.
  • There is no overall choice. However, internal choice has been provided in some questions. You have to attempt only one of the alternatives in all such-questions.

Question. 1.
Who was Johann Gottfried Herder ?
OR
Which chemical weapons were used by the USA on Vietnam ?

Question. 2.
Who wrote The Bitter Cry of Outcast London ?
OR
The novel, ‘Pride and Prejudice’ was written by whom ?

Question. 3.
How Gross Cropped Area is different from Net Sown Area ?

Question. 4.
How many languages are included in the 8th schedule of the Indian Constitution ?

Question. 5.
Why large number of people are forced to enter in unorganised sector for jobs ?

Question. 6.
A large MNC produces its industrial equipments in United States, manufactures its component in China. The company’s call centre is based in India. With reference to the above stated examples, write two ways in which MNCs set-up and control their production in other countries.

Question. 7.
Simran a student of Hari Nagar, joined a two year course in local coaching centre in New Delhi. At the time of joining the course she paid the fees of 60,000 for the entire course of two years. However after few months she decided to opt out of the course as she found that the quality of teaching was not upto the mark. Based on the above case write any two consumer’s rights of Simran.

Question. 8.
“The Ho Chi Minh Trail became advantageous to Vietnamese in the war against the US”. Support the statement with arguments.
OR
Explain the political situation of Italy before its unification.

Question. 9.
Who was Louis-Sebastien Mercier ? What was his opinion on the printing press ?
OR
Analyse any three impacts of print culture on religious reform movement of the 19th century.

Question. 10.
“Minerals are indispensable part of our lives.” Support the statement with examples.

Question. 11.
Amit owns a farm in Tamil Nadu, he wishes to cultivate either rice or jute. Which crop he shall cultivate out of the two keeping in mind the climatic conditions required for their growth ? Explain.

Question. 12.
Describe the three fold distribution of legislative powers between the Union government and State government.

Question. 13.
State any three important features of ‘Civil Rights Movement’ of the USA during 1954¬1968.

Question. 14.
“Democratic government is a legitimate government”. Explain.

Question. 15.
A vessel dumped 1000 tonnes of liquid toxic waste into open-air dumps in a city. The fumes from the highly toxic waste caused nausea, skin rashes,= fainting, diarrhoea, etc. After a month seven persons were dead, twenty admitted in hospital and twenty six were treated for symptoms of poisoning. What should be the developmental goals of this country ? Write any three.

Question. 16.
Subhash is a government employee and belongs to a rich household, whereas Raju is a construction worker and comes from a poor rural household. Both are in need and wish to take loan. Create a list of arguments explaining who between the two would successfully be able to arrange money from a formal source ? Why ?

Question. 17.
Explain the functions of World Trade Organisation (WTO) in international trade.

Question. 18.
Suppose you have to buy a packed bottle for drinking water in your journey. Which logo would you like to see to be sure about its quality ? Create a diagram and write its benefits.

Question. 19.
How did the development of the cities influence the ecology and environment in late 19th century ? Explain your answer by giving the examples of Calcutta.
OR
How did handloom cloth production expand steadily in the 20th century ? Explain.
OR
Why did some industrialists in nineteenth century Europe prefer manual labour over machines ?

Question. 20.
Analyse the role of merchants and the industrialists in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
OR
Explain the major factors which promoted the sense of nationalism in the Indians ?

Question. 21.
Why has the ‘Chotanagpur plateau region’ has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries ? Analye the reasons.

Question. 22.
“Dense and efficient network of transport and communication is a pre-requisite for national and international trade.” Support this statement with four arguments.
OR
Describe some of the major improvements made by Indian railways in its functioning since Independence.

Question. 23.
What is meant by caste hierarchy ? Explain the role of caste in Indian politics.

Question. 24.
What steps are be taken to reform the political parties in India ? Suggest any four steps.
OR
Explain the role of regional political parties in Indian politics.

Question. 25.
Rajesh is a teacher in a private school and has been getting regular salary. While Vikas is a postman in Delhi’s head post office. Name the sectors in which both of them are working and also how the sector in which Rajesh is working is different from the economic sector in which Vikas is working.
OR
Laxmi is a domestic worker and is working in your neighbourhood. Identify the sector in which she is working. Do you think that she needs protection in terms of wages, safety and health. Explain.

Question. 26.
(A) Two features (a) and (b) are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked near them.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 4 1
(a) The location of Indian National Congress session of 1919.
(b) A place where large section of women of Gujarati community was influenced by Gandhiji’s idealism and participated in National Movement.
(B) Locate and label the following with appropriate symbols.
(i) A major port on the South¬East coast of India.
(ii) The state with the highest bauxite production in India.
(iii) A place famous for silk industry in South-India.

ANSWERS

Answer. 1.
Johann Gottfried Herder was a German philosopher who believed that true German culture can be discovered among the common people through their practice of folks tradition.
OR
The USA used Napalm, Agent Orange and Phosphorous Bombs to destroy villages and Jungles of Vietnam.

Answer. 2.
Andrew Mearns wrote the book ‘The Bitter Cry of Outcast London’ in the 1880s. It offers an expose of the housing conditions in one section of South London in 1883 and concludes with a call for social reform.
OR
Jane Austen wrote the famous novel Pride and Prejudice. It is a romantic novel, first published in 1813.

Answer. 3.
Net Sown Area is the proportion of the total areas of the country which is used for growing crops.

Gross Cropped Area is divided by net sown area. It includes the part of net sown area which is used for two or three crops in a year.

Answer. 4.
The 8th schedule of the Indian Constitution contains a list of 22 scheduled languages. The government of India is under an obligation to take measures for the development of these languages, so that they grow rapidly and become effective means of communicating modern knowledge.” These languages are : Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu.

Answer. 5.
Organised sector offers job that are most sought after. This sector provides employment opportunities to well educated and highly skilled people. As large number of people are found to be illiterate and unskilled they are forced to work in unorganised sector. Moreover, employment opportunities in organised sector are expanding very slowly.

Answer. 6.
The various ways in which MNCs set up or control their production in other countries are:

  1. Buy up a local production company.
  2. Place orders for production with small producers, i.e., contract manufacturing.
  3. Setting up a partnership (joint venture) with a local company.
  4. Setting up their wholly owned subsidiary in other country.
  5. By licencing or franchising their brands to a local company.

Answer. 7.
In the above case Simran as a consumer has the following consumer rights :

  1. Right to be heard : According to this right, consumer has the right to file a complaint and to be heard in case of dissatisfaction with a good or a service.
  2. Right to seek redressal : According to this right, a consumer has the right to get relief in case the product or service falls short of his expectations.

Answer. 8.
The Ho Chi Minh Trail became advantageous .to Vietnamese in the war against the US in the following ways :

  1. The story of Ho Chi Minh Trail asserted the nature of the war that the Vietnamese fought against the US. It told us how the Vietnamese used their limited resources to get advantage against the US.
  2. The trail was an immense network of footpaths and roads. This was used to transport men and materials from North Vietnam to South Vietnam.
  3. The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. Most of the supplies were carried by the porters on their backs.

The US regularly bombed this trail trying to disrupt the supplies, but efforts to destroy this important supply line by intensive bombing failed because they were rebuilt very quickly.
OR
Italy had a long history of political fragmentation. This is shown through the following points:

  1. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as multinational Habsburg empire.
  2. During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian Princely House.
  3. The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon Kings of Spain. Even the Italian language had many regional and local variations.

Answer. 9.
Louis-Sebastien was a French dramatist and novelist who lived in 18th century. He was a moderate who participated in the French revolution.
The following points state his opinion on the printing press :

  1. He believed that the printing press was the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion.
  2. Print created a new culture of dialogous and debate.
  3. Print popularised the ideas of enlightened thinkers.
  4. Print criticised the morality of the royalty and raised questions about the existing social order.

OR
Thus, printing press played a major role in shaping the Indian religious reform movement of the 19th century. The impacts of print culture on the

Indian society and religion were as follows :

  1. Debate over Social Issues : Print initiated an intense controversy between social and religious reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy over the matters like widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood and idolatry. In Bengal, as the debate developed, tracts and newspapers proliferated, circulating a variety of arguments. To reach a wider audience, the ideas were printed in the everyday, spoken language of ordinary people.
  2. Ideas of Reforms : Print carried the ideas of social reformers to the common people. For example ‘Sambad Kaumudi’ carried the ideas and philosophy of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
  3. Reforms in Hindus : Among Hindus, print encouraged the reading of religious texts especially. Thus, it can be said that from the early 19th century, there were intense debates about religious issues. Different groups in colonial society offered a new interpretation of the beliefs of different religions.
  4. Reforms in Muslims : In north India Ulama were deeply anxious about the collapse of Muslim dynaties. They fear colonial ruler would encourage conversion and change in muslim personal law. To counter this they published the Persian and Urdu translation of holy scriptures in newspaper.’ The Deoband seminary was founded in 1867 which issued fatwas telling Muslim readers how to condcut them self and explaining the meaning of Islamic doctrines.

Answer. 10.
Minerals are indispensable part of our lives in the following ways :

  1. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship, all are made of minerals.
  2. Car, buses, trains, aeroplanes are manufactured from minerals and run on power resources derived from the earth.
  3. The railway lines and the termac (paving) of the roads, our implements and machinery too are made from minerals even the food we get contains minerals. Toothpaste that cleans our teeth uses abrasive minerals like silica, limestone, aluminium oxide and various other minerals used for cleaning purpose.

Answer. 11.
Keeping in mind the climatic and geographical conditions of Tamil Nadu, it is suggested that he should cultivate rice in his field because of the following reasons :

  1. Rice is grown in plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal and deltaic regions.
  2. It needs high temperature of about 25°C with high humidity and rainfall upto 100 cm.

Because of the above stated reasons it is possible to grow rice in the regions of Tamil Nadu whereas Jute grows in the well drained fertile soils in the flood plains and requires high temperature at the time of its growth. The regions of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya are suitable for the cultivation of jute.

Answer. 12.
The constitution has provided three foid distribution of power between central and state government. It consists of three lists containg different subjects of legislation.

  1. Union list: It includes subjects of national importance, e.g., defence of the country, foreign affairs, banking, communication and currency. The Central government alone can make decisions on these matters. The aim of including these matters in Union list is to ensure uniformity in the policy of these areas throughout the country.
  2. State list: It contains subjects of State and local importance such as police, trade, commerce, agriculture and irrigation. State government alone has the authority to maker laws relating to the subject mentioned in the state list.
  3. Concurrent list: It includes those subjects which are of common interest to both the Central as well as State governments. It includes subjects like marriage, divorce, criminal law, civil procedure newspapers, books and printing press etc. Both the union as well as the state government can make laws on the subject mentioned in this list if ever their laws conflict with each other, the law made by the union government will previal.

Answer. 13.
The Civil Rights Movement was the struggle of African-Americans in the 1950’s and 1960’s to achieve civil rights equal to those of whites, including equal opportunities in employment, housing and education, as well as the right to vote, the right to equal access to public facilities, and the right to be free from racial discrimination.

The three important features of ‘Civil Rights Movement’ of USA during 1954-1968 are :

  1. The African-American ‘Civil Rights Movement’ encompasses social movements in the United States during 1954-1968, which aimed at abolishing legal racial discrimination against African-Americans. This movement was raised to restore the African-Americans rights of citizenship guaranteed by the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments.
  2. This movement was led by Martin Luther King Jr., practiced non-violent methods of civil disobedience against racially discriminatory laws and practices.
  3. The movement was characterised by major campaigns of civil resistance. Acts of non-violent protest and civil disobedience produced a crisis between activists and government authorities.

Answer. 14.
Legitimate government is a government under which law and action of the government are revealed to the people and government functions in a transparent manner.
Following are the features of democratic government which make it a legitimate government.

  1. The laws are applicable to all the citizens whether rich or poor.
  2. In a democracy there is a political equality i.e., every vote counts equally.
  3. People have the right to challenge the government policies and actions. If the people are not satisfied with the working of the government, they have the right to change it.

Answer. 15.
With reference to the above stated case, since the dumping from the vessel has polluted the environment with its highly toxic fumes and is causing

various health issues, the concerned country has basically three important development goals :

  1. Quality of life and environmental sustainability.
  2. Social development which includes education, health and public services.
  3. Economic development or rise in income of the people with desirable living standard.

Answer. 16.
Subhash will be able to get loan from a formal source :

Arguments as to why he is able to get loan from a formal source are :

  1. Banks are present every where in the cities or urban area. It is always better to take loan from formal sources to avoid exploitation.
  2. Subhash is a education person and he is a government employee so he has all the documents required for the loan such as PAN card, IT Return, Pay slip etc.
  3. He is from a rich household so he has the asset which he can keep with the bank as a collateral.

Answer. 17.
The functions and importance of WTO international in trade are :

  1. WTO deals with regulation of trade between participating countries. It is also a venture of economic research and analysis.
  2. WTO provides a forum for the trade negotiations between its member countries.
  3. It is an organisation that intends to supervise and liberalise international trade. It looks after the implementation, administration and operations of the trade agreements between the countries.

Answer. 18.
I would like to see the logo of ISI (Indian Standard Institution).

The benefits of ISI mark are :

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 4 2

  1. If you are not satisfied with the quality of product with ISI mark, then the company will give you new product in return of it.
  2. An action can be taken against the manufacturer of the product with ISI mark in case of its bad quality.

Answer. 19.
Cities developed every where at the cost of ecology and environment. Natural features were transformed for the establishment of factories, housing and other institutions. The following examples justify this fact in the case of Calcutta :

  1. In Calcutta, coal was used in industries and steam engines. The high content of ash in Indian coal has become a great problem causing serious health hazards to people. They were forced to inhale the smog filled air.
  2. As the city was built on marshy land, the resulting fog in winter combined with smoke generated and form thick black smog. It created a high level of pollution.
  3. The inhabitants of Calcutta used coal, wood and dung as fuel in their daily life. It produced dense smoke, which made the air ‘poisonous and caused many diseases like respiratory and skin diseases.
  4. Calcutta was the centre of manufacturing and its industries were mainly developed at the bank of river Hoogly. The waste products from these industries polluted water and air.
  5. Due to industrialization and urbanization, noise pollution was very common in Calcutta. All these factors were very harmful to environment and ecology. In 1863, Calcutta became the first Indian city to get ‘Smoke Nuisance Legislation’.

OR
The low cost machine made thread wiped out the spinning industry in the 19th century, the Indian weavers survived and expanded steadily in the 20th century.

It was due to the following reasons :

  1. Indian weavers adopted new technology which helped them to increase production without raising costs.
  2. Handicraft producers adopted a new technology, which helped in improving the production without excessively pushing up the costs.
  3. Weavers began to use fly shuttle which increased productivity per worker, speed up production and reduced labour demand. By 1941, over 35 percent of handlooms in India were fitted with fly shuttles : In regions like Travancore, Madras, Mysore, Cochin and Bengal were the proportion was 70 to 80 percent.
  4. Among the weavers, some produced coarse cloth while others wove finer varieties. The finer varieties were bought by the rich people and the sale of Banarasi and Baluchari saris was not affected by famines or droughts.
  5. Mills could not imitate specialised weaves producing saris with borders, famous lungis and handkerchiefs of Madras, etc.

OR
Some industrialists were reluctant to introduce new machines and preferred manual labour over machines because of the following reasons :

  1. In Victorian Britain labour was available in large numbers. The industrialists had no problem of labour shortage or high wage cost.
  2. Machines of then broke down and repair was costly.
  3. In seasonal industries, industrialists usually preferred hand labour, employing workers only for the season, when it was needed.
  4. The upper class people prefer articles made by hand only as it was a symbol of status.

Answer. 20.
Indian merchants and industrialists made huge profits from International markets. However, the colonial policies like free import duties were obstacle in their interests. Thus, they formed the federation of the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industries and ‘Commercial Congress ‘ in 1920.

The following points analyse the role of merchants and the industrialists in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

  1. The industrialists and the merchants supported the Civil Disobedience Movement initially to protect their own business interests. They become powerful in the society and wanted to expand their business. So, they started opposing colonial policies that restricted their business.
  2. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and a rupee sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
  3. The industrialists criticised colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement at its first stage.
  4. They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.
  5. Most industrialists thought ‘Swaraj’ flourished at the a time when colonial restriction did not exist on business world.

OR
The spread of nationalism took place due to following factors :

  1. United struggle : The British rulers ill treated the Indians and insulted them. This awful behaviour gave rise to the national movement. Different religious groups and communities unitedly struggled against the British rule. The administrative and economic unification of the country acted as unifying force.
  2. Cultural processes Revival of Indian folklore : Unity spread through various cultural process like history, folklore, songs and symbols that also helped in the spread of nationalism. Reviving the folklore through folk songs, legends helped in promoting traditional culture and restored a sense of pride in the past history and culture.
  3. Common identity : The painting of ‘Bharat Mata’ was commonly identified as motherland and affected the people equally.
  4. Role of press and means of communication : The press played an important role in spreading consciousness and nationalist sentiments among Indians. Newspapers like the Hindu, Amirt Bazar Patrika, the Tribune, etc., aroused the national consciousness among the Indian masses. Also the development of means of communication, Post office, Radio, etc., helped in a spread of ideas of nationalism in India and a sense of unity among Indians.
  5. Role of the leaders : Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru aroused the feelings of nationalism through their motivational speeches and political activities. Thus, it can be concluded that nationalism spread, when people began to believe that they were all a part of the same nation.

Answer. 21.
The Chotanagpur plateau has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries. It is largely because of the relative advantages this region has for the development of this industry. The factors responsible for the concentration of iron and steel industries in and around the ‘Chotanagpur plateau region’ are as follows :

  1. Low cost of iron ore : Iron mines are located in the nearby areas. It helps to reduce the transportation cost of iron ore to the industries.
  2. High grade raw materials to proximity : Other bulky raw materials like, cooking coal and limestone are also available in the close proximity.
  3. Availability of cheap labour : From the adjoining areas of Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha cheap labour is available in abundance.
  4. Dense transport network : This region is well connected with roadways and railways that help in the swift movement of raw materials and finished goods to the industry and market areas, respectively.
  5. Port facilities : Kolkata is a well developed port that is near to this area.

Answer. 22.
We use different materials and services in our daily life. Some of them are available in our immediate surroundings, while other requirements are met by bringing things from other places. The importance of transport and communication is seen in today’s time as the world has converted into a large village with the help of efficient and fast moving transport.

Arguments to support the above statement are as follows :

  1. Fast and efficient transport system is required for products to reach their destinations on time, otherwise business will suffer badly.
  2. Communication is vital for international trade where much advance planning is required for its success. For example a container has to be book in advance for export trade as most of the goods are exported through ships.
  3. Transport is required to carry raw materials to production centres and manufacturing hubs then to the markets.
  4. Modern communication facilities like the internet allow commercial transactions to take place over large distances including overseas transactions. They also keep buyers and sellers informed about their present and prospective markets.

Thus, it can be concluded that dense and efficient network of transport and communication is a pre-requisite for national and international trade.
OR
Some major improvements in the functioning of Indian railways since independence are:

  1. Electrification of railway lines to reduce burden on fossil fuels and to increase speed. The survey of rail routes to be electrified is an ongoing process. Ministry of railways has planned to electrify 39844 kilometer of balance broad gauge routes of Indian railways by the year 2021-22.
  2. Introduction of computerised reservation system for convenience of passengers. By reserving railway ticket, you can get the seat of your choice. It is very helpful during the festival seasons because at the time of festivals, its very difficult to travel without reservation.
  3. Conversion of metre gauge lines to broad gauge to ensure higher speed and more carrying capacity.
  4. Construction of new railway lines to improve the connectivity in the country. Railway routes have been extended to areas where there was no railway route earlier.
  5. Replacing steam engines, which cause heavy pollution, by diesel and electric engines.

Answer. 23.
Caste hierarchy is the system of social stratification in our society. Broadly speaking, caste system is a process of placing people in occupational groups.

Role of caste in Indian politics :

  1. It has persuaded several aspects of Indian society for centuries. Castes are ranked in hierarchical order, which determine the behaviour of one member of society over another.
  2. Besides voting, the caste is an important factor influencing the selection of the candidates in elections, appointment of ministers, transfer and posting of public officials, etc.
  3. The policy of reservation has given further impetus to the role of caste in politics. Caste plays a very important role in elections at the time of voting. Political parties select their candidates on the basis of caste composition in the constituency.
  4. The voting in elections and mobilisation of political support from top to bottom moves on the caste system. Caste functions as a pressure group in politics. Political bargaining is also done on caste system.

Answer. 24.
In order to face the challenges in society, political parties need to be reformed.

The following steps should be taken to reform the political parties :

  1. Anti-defection law : Under the Anti-defection law, MLAs and MPs cannot change party after the election. This was done as many elected candidates were indulging in defection in order to become ministers or for cash rewards. Now, according to this law, if any MLA or MP changes his political parties, he or she will lose the seat in legislature. At the same time, this law has made any dissent even more difficult. MPs and MLAs have to accept whatever the party leaders decide.
  2. Affidavit: Now, it is mandatory for every candidate, who contests elections to file an affidavit giving details of his property and criminal cases pending against him. All the political parties have to ensure that no candidate should be given ticket having criminal background for any election.
  3. Transperency in party affairs : The Election Commission passed an order making it necessary for political parties to hold their organisational elections and file their income tax returns.
  4. Reservation for women : It should be made mandatory for the parties to give one- third of their party tickets to women candidates, so that women can take part in the decision-making bodies of the party.
  5. Donation : All the political parties should issue proper receipt against the / donation received by them during the financial year.

OR
Other than the national parties, most of the major parties of the country are classified by the Election Commission as ‘state parties’. The following points explain the role of r regional political parties in Indian politics.

  1. These parties need not to be regional in their ideology always. Parties like Samajwadi party, Samata party and Rashtriya Janata Dal have national level political organisation with units in several states. Some parties like Biju Janata Dal and Mizo National Front are conscious about their state identity.
  2. Since 1996, no national party is able to secure on its own a majority in Indian Lok Sabha. The national parties are compelled to form alliance with the state parties. The number and strength of the regional parties have expanded. This has contributed to the strengthening of federalism and democracy in our country.
  3. This situation is applicable not only to the Centre, but also to the State politics. If a party is unable to win the required number of seats in legislative assembly, a coalition the only option, where the regional parties plays important role in the government formation.
  4. If a regional party has a strong hold in the Centre, the region, from where the party hails will get a solid platform to work for the welfare of their region.
  5. Regional parties are playing a major role in the Indian politics and their influence : is not just limited to particular region or state, but their decisions and thought processes are important for the central government for taking and decisions. In the 16th Lok Sabha election, Bharatiya Janata Party got an absolute majority which relacted to regional level the ends of the era of coalition government at centre. This , emphatic victory has re-opened the question of alliance amongst regional parties in our country.

Answer. 25.
Since Rajesh is a teacher at a private school, this relates to the private sector of an economy. While Vikas is a postman in Delhi’s head post office, this sector relates to the public sector of an economy.

The difference between the public sector and the private sector is listed as follows :

Public Sector

  1. Public sector aims for the public welfare.
  2. The government owns most of the assets and provides all the services.
  3. The decisions regarding the pro duction and distribution are taken by the government.
  4. This sector provides basic facilities like education, health, food and security to people.
  5. Example : Indian Railways and Post Office.

Private Sector

  1. Private sector aims at profit maximisation.
  2. The ownership of assets and delivery of services is in the hands of private mdi iduaIs or companies.
  3. The decisions regarding production and distribution are taken by owners or manager of company.
  4. This sector provides consumer goods to the people.
  5. Example : TISCO and Reliance Industries limited.

OR
Laxmi is a domestic worker and is working in an unorganised sector of an economy. The unorganised sector is characterised by small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government. There is no provision of overtime, paid leaves, holidays and leave due to the sickness. Here employment is subject to high degree of insecurity workers in the unorganised sector need protection in terms of their wages, safety and health.

The following issues of her protection in the unorganised sector can be explained as follows :

  1. Wages : Low wages, more working hours and no provision for overtime are common in unorganised sector. They must be given fair wages so that they may support their family. Hence, wages in all sectors should be according to the government rules and regulation.
  2. Safety : There are several workers working in mines or crackers factories in hazardous condition. They have no access to safety and risk their lives. Safety norms must be strictly followed in such hazardous work places. Apart from this, life insurance should be made man mandatory.
  3. Health : Workers in unorganised sector work in poor working conditions with no provision of safe drinking water, clean surroundings and medical facilities. This further deteriorates their working ability. Health insurance should be made mandatory for them. This sector includes a large number of people who are employed on their own doing small jobs such as selling products on streets or doing repair work.

Answer. 26.
The answer map is given below.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 4 3

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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Hindi A Set 2

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Hindi A Set 2

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Hindi A Set 2

These Sample Papers are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Hindi A. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Hindi A Set 2

निर्धारित समय : 3 घण्टे
अधिकतम अंक : 80

सामान्य निर्देश

* इस प्रश्न-पत्र में चार खण्ड हैं
खण्ड (क) : अपठित अंश -15 अंक
खण्ड (ख) : व्यावहारिक व्याकरण -15 अंक
खण्ड (ग) : पाठ्य पुस्तक एवं पूरक पाठ्य पुस्तक -30 अंक
खण्ड (घ) : लेखन -20 अंक
* चारों खण्डों के प्रश्नों के उत्तर देना अनिवार्य है।
* यथासंभव प्रत्येक खण्ड के प्रश्नों के उत्तर क्रमश: दीजिए।

खण्ड (क) : अपठित अंश

प्र. 1. निम्नलिखित गद्यांश को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़िए और नीचे लिखे प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखिए
सच्चा उत्साह वही होता है, जो मनुष्य को कार्य करने के लिए प्रेरणा देता है। मनुष्य किसी भी कारणवश जब किसी के कष्ट को दूर करने का संकल्प करता है, तब जिस सुख का वह अनुभव करता है, वह सुख विशेष रूप से प्रेरणा देने वाला होता है। जिससे मनुष्य को कोई भी कार्य करते समय, कष्ट, दुख या हानि को सहन करने की ताकत आती है, उन सबसे उत्पन्न आनन्द ही उत्साह कहलाता है। उदाहरण के लिए, दान देने वाला व्यक्ति निश्चय ही अपने भीतर एक विशेष साहस रखता है और वह है धन-त्याग का साहस। यही त्याग यदि मनुष्य प्रसन्नता के साथ करता है, तो उसे उत्साह से किया गया दान कहा जाएगा।

उत्साह आनन्द और साहस का मिला-जुला रूप है। उत्साह में किसी-न-किसी वस्तु पर ध्यान केन्द्रित होता है। वह चाहे कर्म पर, चाहे कर्म के फल पर और चाहे व्यक्ति या वस्तु पर हो।

(i) विशेष रूप से प्रेरणा देने वाले सुख की क्या विशेषता होती है?
(ii) ऐसा क्यों कहा गया है कि दान देने वाला व्यक्ति निश्चय ही अपने भीतर एक विशेष साहस रखता है। विचार करके लिखिए।
(iii) उत्साह को किनका मिला-जुला रूप बताया गया है और क्यों ?
(iv) सच्चा उत्साह किस बात की प्रेरणा प्रदान करता है?
(v) दानी व्यक्ति के अंदर कैसा साहस होता है?

प्र. 2. निम्नलिखित काव्यांश को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़कर पूछे गये प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखिए
कोई नहीं पराया, मेरा घर सारा संसार है।
मैं न बँधा हूँ देश-काल की जंग लगी जंजीर में,
मैं न खड़ा हूँ जाति-पाँति की ऊँची-नीची भीड़ में,
मेरा धर्म न कुछ स्याही शब्दों का एक गुलाम है,
मैं बस कहता हूँ कि प्यार है तो घट-घट में राम है,
मुझसे तुम न कहो मंदिर-मस्जिद पर मैं सर टेक हूँ,
मेरा तो आराध्य आदमी देवालय हर द्वार है।
कोई नहीं पराया, मेरा घर सारा संसार है।

कहीं रहूँ कैसे भी, मुझको प्यारा यह इंसान है,
मुझको अपनी मानवता पर बहुत-बहुत अभिमान है,
अरे नहीं देवत्व, मुझे तो भाता है मनुजत्व ही,
और छोड़कर प्यार, नहीं स्वीकार मुझे अमरत्व भी,
मुझे सुनाओ तुम न स्वर्ग-सुख की सुकुमार कहानियाँ,
मेरी धरती सौ-सौ स्वर्गों से ज्यादा सुकुमार है।
कोई नहीं पराया, मेरा घर सारा संसार है।
(i) “मेरा तो आराध्य आदमी देवालय हर द्वार है”। इस पंक्ति से कवि का क्या आशय है?
(ii) ‘कवि का घर सारा संसार है।’ काव्यांश के आधार पर स्पष्ट कीजिए।
(ii) कवि क्या नहीं सुनना चाहता ?
(iv) कवि को किस पर अभिमान है?
(v) ‘ऊँची-नीची’ में प्रयुक्त समास का नाम बताइए।

खण्ड (ख) : व्यावहारिक व्याकरण

प्र. 3. निम्नलिखित वाक्यों के रचना के आधार पर भेद लिखिए
(क) पंख वाले चटे या दीमक वर्षा के दिनों में निकलते हैं।
(ख) पीलक जितना शर्मीला होता है उतनी ही इसकी आवाज भी शर्मीली है।
(ग) कठिन परिश्रम करो और पास होकर दिखाओ।

प्र. 4. निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को वाच्य के अनुसार परिवर्तित कीजिए
(क) कूजन कुंज में आसपास के पक्षी संगीत का अभ्यास करते हैं। (कर्मवाच्य में)
(ख) तुलसीदास द्वारा ‘रामचरितमानस’ की रचना की गई। (कर्तृवाच्य में)
(ग) हम इतना भार नहीं सह सकते।
(घ) अब राष्ट्रपति नहीं आएंगे। (भाववाच्य में)

प्र. 5. निम्नलिखित वाक्यों में रेखांकित पदों का पद-परिचय दीजिये
(क) वह छात्र बहुत होशियार है।
(ख) वे स्त्रियाँ संस्कृत नहीं बोलतीं।
(ग) रंग-बिरंगे फूल देखकर मन प्रसन्न हो गया।
(घ) रमेश वहाँ बैठा है।

प्र. 6. निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर निर्देशानुसार लिखिए
(क) वीर रस के संचारी भाव कौन से हैं?
(ख) “सीताजी के नैन रामचंद्र के चकोर भये, राम-नैन सीता-मुखचंद्र के चकोर हैं।” उक्त पंक्ति में कौन-सा रस है?
(ग) स्थायी भावों की संख्या कितनी है? चार उदाहरण दीजिए।
(घ) निम्न पंक्तियों में निहित रस बताइए
‘रे नृप बालक कालबस, बोलत तोहि न सँभार।
धनुही सम त्रिपुरारि धन, बिदित सकल संसार।।”

खण्ड (ग) : पाठ्य पुस्तक एवं पूरक पाठ्य पुस्तक

प्र. 7. निम्नलिखित गद्यांश को पढ़कर पूछे गए प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखिए
काशी में जिस तरह बाबा विश्वनाथ और बिस्मिला खाँ एक-दूसरे के पूरक रहे हैं, उसी तरह मुहर्रम-ताजिया और होली-अबीर, गुलाल की गंगा-जमुनी संस्कृति भी एक-दूसरे के पूरक रहे हैं। अभी जल्दी ही बहुत कुछ इतिहास बन चुका है। अभी आगे बहुत कुछ इतिहास बन जाएगा। फिर भी कुछ बचा है जो सिर्फ काशी में है। काशी आज भी संगीत के स्वर पर जगती और उसी की थापों पर सोती है। काशी में मरण भी मंगल माना गया है। काशी आनंदकानन है। सबसे बड़ी बात है कि काशी के पास उस्ताद बिस्मिल्ला खाँ जैसा लय और सुर की तमीज़ सिखाने वाला नायाब हीरा रहा है जो हमेशा से दो कौमों को एक होने व आपस में भाईचारे के साथ रहने की प्रेरणा देता रहा।
(क) काशी की संस्कृति को गंगा-जमुनी संस्कृति कहने का क्या अभिप्राय है? स्पष्ट कीजिए।
(ख) सिद्ध कीजिए कि काशी सांप्रदायिक सौहार्द से भरी नगरी रही है।
(ग) “अभी जल्दी ही बहुत कुछ इतिहास बन चुका है। अभी आगे बहुत कुछ इतिहास बन जाएगा।’ लेखक का यह कथन किस ओर संकेत कर रहा है?

प्र. 8. निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर संक्षेप में लिखिए
(क) कैप्टन कौन था? उसे कौन-सी बात आहत करती थी ?
(ख) आपकी दृष्टि में भगत की कबीर पर श्रद्धा के क्या कारण रहे होंगे? ‘बालगोबिन भगत’ पाठ के आधार पर उत्तर दीजिए।
(ग) ‘एक कहानी यह भी’ पाठ की लेखिका और उनके पिता के मध्य मनमुटाव का कारण क्या था?
(घ) ‘लखनवी अंदाज’ नामक व्यंग्य का क्या संदेश है?

प्र.9. निम्नलिखित काव्यांश को पढ़कर पूछे प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखिए
तुम्हारी यह दंतुरित मुस्कान
मृतक में भी डाल देगी जान
धूलि-धूसर तुम्हारे ये गात…..
छोड़कर तालाब मेरी झोंपड़ी में खिल रहे जलजात
परस पाकर तुम्हारा ही प्राण,
पिघलकर जल बन गया होगा कठिन पाषाण
छू गया तुमसे कि झरने लग पड़े शेफालिका के फूल
बाँस था कि बबूल?
तुम मुझे पाए नहीं पहचान?
देखते ही रहोगे अनिमेष!
थक गए हो ?
आँख लूं मैं फेर?
क्या हुआ यदि हो सके परिचित न पहली बार ?
यदि तुम्हारी माँ न माध्यम बनी होती आज,
मैं न सकता देख
मैं ने पाता जान
तुम्हारी यह दंतुरित मुस्कान
(क) ‘तुम्हारी यह दंतुरित मुस्कान, मृतक में भी डल देगी जान’-पंक्ति के आधार पर बताइए कि दंतुरित मुस्कान की क्या-क्या विशेषताएँ हैं? अपने शब्दों में लिखिए।
(ख) किस स्थिति में कवि ‘इस दंतुरित मुस्कान’ के सुख से वंचित रह जाता ? स्पष्ट कीजिए।
(ग) बच्चा कवि से पहली बार में परिचित क्यों नहीं हो पाया ? विचार करके लिखिए।

प्र. 10. निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर संक्षेप में लिखिए
(क) लक्ष्मण के अनुसार वीर क्या नहीं किया करते?’राम-लक्ष्मण-परशुराम संवाद’ के आधार पर उत्तर दीजिए।
(ख) “उत्साह’ कविता में ‘नवजीवन वाले’ किसे कहा गया है और क्यों ?
(ग) “आग रोटियाँ सेंकने के लिए है, जलने के लिए नहीं।’ काव्य-पंक्ति द्वारा माँ ने बेटी को क्या समझाया है? स्पष्ट कीजिए।
(घ) गोपियों को योग किसके समान लगता है? वे उद्धव के योग-संदेश को व्यर्थ क्यों बताती हैं?

प्र. 11. “यह बात अखबार वालों तक न पहुँचे।” ‘जॉर्ज पंचम की नाक’ पाठ में मूर्तिकार द्वारा कहे गए इस वाक्य से समाज में आ रहे परिवर्तन पर प्रकाश डालिए।

अथवा

‘साना-साना हाथ जोड़ि’ पाठ में आज की पीढ़ी द्वारा प्रकृति का दोहन करने, पर्यावरण-संरक्षण के प्रति असावधान रहने का उल्लेख किया गया है। आप एक जागरूक नागरिक का कर्तव्य निभाते हुए ऐसे लोगों को किस प्रकार समझाएँगे? विचार करके लिखिए।

खण्ड (घ) : लेखन

प्र. 12. निम्नलिखित में से किसी एक विषय पर दिए गए संकेत बिन्दुओं के आधार पर 200 से 250 शब्दों में निबंध लिखिए।
(क) शिक्षा का निजीकरण

  • भूमिका
  • निजीकरण के सकारात्मक प्रभाव
  • शिक्षा के निजीकरण से दुष्प्रभाव
  • उपसंहार

(ख) समय की कमी से जूझता महानगरीय जीवन

  • महानगर की जीवन-शैली
  • उन्नति की अंधी दौड़
  • मानवीय मूल्यों का पतन
  • कृत्रिमता
  • तनावे
  • संयमित जीवन-शैली अपनाने का आह्वान

(ग) छात्र असंतोष

  • भूमिका
  • छात्र असंतोष का प्रभाव
  • शिक्षा का उद्देश्य
  • उपसंहार

प्र. 13. अपने क्षेत्र में मच्छरों के प्रकोप का वर्णन करते हुए उचित कार्रवाई के लिए स्वास्थ्य अधिकारी को पत्र लिखिये।

अथवा

ग्रीष्मावकाश में आपके पर्वतीय मित्र ने आपको आमंत्रित कर अनेक दर्शनीय स्थलों की सैर कराई। इसके लिए उसका आभार व्यक्त करते हुए धन्यवाद-पत्र लिखिए।

प्र. 14. किसी ऑनलाइन शॉपिंग कम्पनी की ओर से 25-50 शब्दों में विज्ञापन तैयार कीजिए।

अथवा

पर्यावरण के प्रति जागरूकता बढ़ाने के लिए लगभग 25-50 शब्दों में एक विज्ञापन तैयार कीजिए।

उत्तरमाला

खण्ड (क)

उत्तर 1. (i) विशेष रूप से प्रेरणा देने वाले सुख की यह विशेषता होती है कि जब किसी भी कारण से मनुष्य किसी व्यक्ति के कष्ट को दूर करने का संकल्प करता है और उसे पूरा करता है तब ही वह सुख प्राप्त करता है।
(ii) हमारे विचार से जो धन परिश्रम करके अर्जित किया जाता है, उसे किसी को दान में देना कोई सामान्य बात नहीं है। उसे बिना विशेष साहस रखे, किसी दूसरे को देना वास्तव में, धन-त्याग करने का यह साहस विशेष होता है।
(iii) उत्साह के कारण ही व्यक्ति परमार्थ की भावना से भरकर कार्य करता है, जिससे उसे आनन्द की प्राप्ति होती है, किन्तु यह आनन्द मन के साहस के बिना प्राप्त नहीं किया जा सकता। अत: उत्साह को आनन्द व साहस का मिला-जुला रूप बताया गया है।
(iv) सच्चा उत्साह मनुष्य को कार्य करने की प्रेरणा देता है।
(v) दानी व्यक्ति के अंदर धन-त्याग का एक विशेष साहस होता है।

उत्तर 2. (i) “मेरा तो आराध्य आदमी देवालय हर द्वार है”, पंक्ति से कवि का आशय नाम आदमी से है। अर्थात् यदि हमारे मन में प्यार है, तो हमारे मन में ही राम का वास रहता है। अतः हमें मंदिर-मस्जिद जाने की कोई आवश्यकता नहीं है।
(ii) कवि का घर सारा संसार है, क्योंकि वह किसी भी प्रकार के भेदभाव को नहीं मानता। वह कहता है कि मैं देश-काल की किसी भी प्रकार की जंजीर में नहीं बँधा हुआ, जाति-पाँति के भेदभाव में विश्वास नहीं करता हूँ इसलिए सारा संसार मेरा घर है।
(iii) कवि स्वर्ग-सुख की सुकुमार कहानियाँ नहीं सुनना चाहता।
(iv) कवि को अपनी मानवता पर अभिमान है।
(v) ऊँची-नीची’ में द्वंद्व समास है।

खण्ड (ख)

उत्तर 3. (क) सरल वाक्य।
(ख) मिश्र वाक्य।
(ग) संयुक्त वाक्य

उत्तर 4. (क) कूजन कुंज में आस-पास के पक्षी द्वारा संगीत का अभ्यास किया जाता है।
(ख) तुलसीदास ने रामचरितमानस की रचना की।
(ग) हमसे इतना भार नहीं सहा जा सकता।
(घ) अब राष्ट्रपति से नहीं आया जाएगा।

उत्तर 5. (क) छात्र-जातिवाचक संज्ञा, एकवचन, पुल्लिंग।
(ख) वे-सार्वनामिक विशेषण, स्त्रीलिंग, बहुवचन।
(ग) रंग-बिरंगे-गुणवाचक विशेषण, बहुवचन, पुल्लिग, ‘फूल’ विशेष्य का विशेषण।
(घ) वहाँ–स्थानवाचक क्रिया-विशेषण ‘बैठा है’ क्रिया को स्थान निर्देश।

उत्तर 6. (क) वीर रस के संचारी भाव आवेग, हर्ष, गर्व आदि हैं।
(ख) संयोग श्रृंगार रस (रति स्थायी भाव)।
(ग) स्थायी भावों की संख्या 10 निश्चित की गई है। उदाहरण-रति, हास, शोक, क्रोध इत्यादि।
(घ) रौद्र रस (क्रोध स्थायी भाव) ।

खण्ड (ग)

उत्तर 7. (क) काशी की संस्कृति को ‘गंगा-जमुनी संस्कृति’ कहने का अभिप्राय है कि काशी में साम्प्रदायिक सद्भावना से परिपूर्ण वातावरण है। काशी में हिन्दू-मुस्लिम सम्प्रदाय के लोग मिलजुलकर रहते हैं। दोनों ही धर्मों के लोग एक-दूसरे के जज्बातों का सम्मान करते हैं और यहाँ दोनों धर्मों के लोग एक-दूसरे के रीति-रिवाजों व त्योहारों को परस्पर प्रेम व श्रद्धा के साथ मनाते हैं।

(ख) काशी की संस्कृति को गंगा-जमुनी संस्कृति कहा गया है। यह संस्कृति उदारता, प्रेम व भाईचारे की संस्कृति है। इसमें धार्मिक कट्टरता नहीं दिखाई देती है। इसकी हवा में मजहबी मेलजोल व भाईचारे की खुशबू है। हिन्दू-मुस्लिम सम्प्रदाय के लागों में एक-दूसरे के रीति-रिवाजों व त्योहारों के प्रति श्रद्धा का भावना रहती है। अतः इससे सिद्ध होता है कि काशी साम्प्रदायिक सौहार्द से भरी नगरी रही है।

(ग) “अभी जल्दी ही बहुत कुछ इतिहास बन चुका है। अभी आगे बहुत कुछ इतिहास बन जाएगा’-लेखक का यह कथन काशी में हो रहे धार्मिक, सांस्कृतिक एवं अन्य परिवर्तनों की ओर संकेत कर रहा है, किन्तु इतने परिवर्तनों में भी दो कौमों को जोड़ने वाले संगीत के स्वर आज भी अपना पुनीत कार्य कर रहे हैं।

उत्तर 8. (क) कस्बे का एक गरीब फेरीवाला जिसे बूढ़ा कैप्टन कहते थे, वह शरीर से मरियल और अपंग था। उसका काम था गली-गली घूमकर चश्मे बेचना। लोगों ने उसका नाम ‘कैप्टन’ इसलिए रख दिया था क्योंकि वह सुभाषचन्द्र बोस और उनकी देशभक्ति की कायल था। उसे यह बात आहत करती थी कि सुभाषचन्द्र बोस की मूर्ति पर चश्मा नहीं था।
(ख) मेरी दृष्टि में बालगोबिन भगत की कबीर पर अगाध श्रद्धा के निम्नलिखित कारण रहे होंगे–

  1. कबीरदास की सामाजिक कुरीतियों का विरोध करने वाली बातें भगत को पसन्द होंगी।
  2. कबीरदास के जाति-पाँति का विरोध करने वाले विचारों से बहुत प्रभावित हुए होंगे।
  3. कबीरदास की सत्य का आचरण, झूठ से घृणा, सादा जीवन उच्च विचार और मितव्ययता की बातों ने भी बहुत प्रभावित किया होगा।

(ग) ‘एक कहानी यह भी’ पाठ की लेखिका और उनके पिता के मध्य मनमुटाव का प्रमुख कारण वैचारिक अंतर था। पिताजी यह तो चाहते थे कि उनकी बेटी घर में आए लोगों के बीच उठे-बैठे, किन्तु उन्हें लेखिका को हड़तालें करवाना, नारे-लगाना, लड़कों के साथ आन्दोलन करते हुए सड़कों पर घूमना आदि बिल्कुल भी पसन्द नहीं था, जबकि लेखिका अपने पिताजी द्वारा दी गई
केवल घर की आजादी के दायरे में नहीं रहना चाहती थी।
(घ) ‘लखनवी अंदाज’ नामक व्यंग्य में लेखक कहना चाहता है कि जीवन में स्थूल और सूक्ष्म दोनों का महत्व है। केवल गंध और स्वाद के सहारे पेट नहीं भरा जा सकता। जो लोग इस तरह पेट भरने और संतुष्ट होने का दिखावा करते हैं, वे ढोंगी होते हैं, अवास्तविक होते हैं। इस व्यंग्य का दूसरा संदेश यह है कि कहानी के लिए कोई-न-कोई घटना, पात्र और विचार अवश्य होना
चाहिए। बिना घटना और पात्र के कहानी लिखना निरर्थक है।

उत्तर 9. (क) ‘तुम्हारी यह दंतुरित मुस्कान, मृतक में भी डाल देगी जान’-पंक्ति के आधार पर दंतुरित मुस्कान की निम्नलिखित विशेषताएँ हैं

  1. बच्चों की मुस्कान इतनी भोली, निश्छल व सहज होती है कि यह मृतक अर्थात् मृत भावनाओं वाले व्यक्ति की भावनाओं में भी सरसता व नवजीवन का समावेश कर देती है।
  2. ऐसी मुस्कान पाषाण हृदय को भी पिघला देती है।
  3. बच्चे की दंतुरित मुस्कान झोंपड़ी को भी कमलों से भरे तालाब के समान प्रतीत कराती है।

(ख) यदि बच्चे की माँ माध्यम न बनी होती, तो कवि बच्चे की दंतुरित मुस्कान को देखने के सुख से वंचित रह जाता। तब न तो शिशु उसे देखकर अठखेलियाँ करता और न ही मन को छूने वाली यह मुस्कान बिखेरता।
(ग) बच्चा कवि से पहली बार में परिचित नहीं हो पाया क्योंकि कवि को बच्चे ने पहली बार देखा था, इसलिए बच्चे के मन में कवि को लेकर उत्सुकता व अनभिज्ञता का भाव था। ये दोनों भाव माँ ने सहजता से दूर करवाए।

उत्तर 10. (क) लक्ष्मण ने परशुराम को वीरता का व्रत धारण करने वाले, धैर्यवान और क्षोभरहित बताते हुए कहा कि आप जैसे महान् मुनि को अपशब्द कहना शोभा नहीं देता। आप शूरवीर हैं। शूरवीर अपनी करनी युद्ध में दिखाते हैं, बातों से अपना वर्णन नहीं करते । शत्रु को युद्ध में उपस्थित पाकर अपने प्रताप की डग मारने वाले कायर होते हैं।
(ख) ‘उत्साह’ कविता में ‘नवजीवन वाले’ विशेषण दो शब्दों के साथ लगा है-बादलों के साथ तथा कवि के साथ। बादलों को नवजीवन वाले इसलिए कहा गया है क्योंकि वे वर्षा करके मुरझाई-सी धरती में नया जीवन फेंक देते हैं। वे धरती को उपजाऊ बना देते हैं और गर्मी से मुक्ति दिलाते हैं।
कवि को ‘नवजीवन वाले’ इसलिए कहा गया है क्योंकि वह उत्साह का संचार करके निराश-हताश लोगों के जीवन में नई उमंग भरता है।
(ग) “आग रोटियाँ सेंकने के लिए है, जलने के लिए नहीं।’ इस काव्य-पंक्ति द्वारा माँ ने बेटी को यह समझाया है कि कुछ लड़कियाँ ससुराल के वातावरण से इतना दुखी हो जाती हैं कि वे स्वयं को जलाकर खत्म कर लेती हैं। ऐसा परिस्थितियों का साहसपूर्वक सामना न कर पाने की वजह से होता है, अत: वह ससुराल में स्वयं को निराश न होने दे तथा स्वयं को कभी कमजोर न दर्शाए,
अपने व्यक्तित्व को मजबूत बनाए रखे तथा स्वयं को आग से जलाने या नष्ट करने की सोच भी मन में न आने दे।
(घ) गोपियों को योग की शिक्षा या उपदेश कड़वी ककड़ी के समान प्रतीत होता है क्योंकि वे नहीं चाहती हैं कि हारिल पक्षी की लकड़ी के समान मन में बसाए कृष्ण-प्रेम को वे छोड़ दें। वे निर्गुण ब्रह्म या योग के लिए उस प्रेम को मन से हटाना नहीं चाहती हैं। उद्धव योग-संदेश द्वारा गोपियों के मन में बसे श्याम के प्रति प्रेम की भावना को हटाना चाहते हैं। इसी कारण गोपियों को उनका
योग-संदेश व्यर्थ लगता है।

उत्तर 11. प्रस्तुत पाठ में मूर्तिकार द्वारा कहे गए इस वाक्य से समाज में आ रहे परिवर्तन की ओर संकेत किया गया है। मूर्तिकार के पात्र द्वारा लेखक ने समाज में गिरते हुए नैतिक मूल्यों की ओर ध्यान आकर्षित किया है। मूर्तिकार ने जीवित व्यक्ति की नाक को मूर्ति पर लगाने का सुझाव दिया है, परन्तु इस विनती के साथ कि यह बात अखबार वालों तक न पहुँचे। वह पैसे की तंगी से जूझ रहा था, इसीलिए उसने ऐसा सुझाव दिया। यद्यपि वह जानता है कि उसका यह सुझाव नैतिक दृष्टि से ठीक नहीं है, परन्तु पैसे की खातिर उससे कुछ भी करवाया जा सकता है। समाज का यही वर्ग धन की शक्ति के आगे विवश हो जाता है और धन के अभाव में मूल्यों का त्याग करने से भी नहीं चूकता। अतः समाज में धन की लोलुपता बढ़ती जा रही है, जिससे समाज पथ-भ्रष्ट हो गया है।

अथवा

‘साना-साना हाथ जोड़ि’ पाठ में आज की पीढ़ी द्वारा प्रकृति का दोहन करने, पर्यावरण-संरक्षण के प्रति असावधान रहने आदि का उल्लेख किया गया है। वास्तव में, इन उल्लेखों से यह लगता है कि जैसे बुद्धिजीवी होते हुए भी मनुष्य ने प्रकृति की ओर से अपनी आँखें बिल्कुल पूँद ली हैं। लोगों को समझाने के लिए मैं एक जागरूक नागरिक का कर्तव्य निभाते हुए ‘मुड़ो, प्रकृति की ओर’ नामक एक जागरूकता अभियान चलाता तथा पहले इसे अपने नगर में आरम्भ करता। अपने साथ कुछ अन्य जागरूक युवाओं को लेकर इसे जिले में, मंडल में, प्रदेश में और फिर राष्ट्रीय तथा अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर ले जाने का प्रयास करता। इसके लिए मैं नुक्कड़ नाटक व मंडलियों की भी मदद लेता और उनसे स्थान-स्थान पर नुक्कड़ नाटक का आयोजन करवाता। मुझे पता है कि किसी भी अभियान को सफल बनाने में आजकल मीडिया की भी महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका होती है, अतः मैं मीडिया की भी मदद लेता।

खण्ड (घ)

उत्तर 12. (क) शिक्षा को निजीकरण

भूमिका-शिक्षा का निजीकरण अर्थात् शिक्षण संस्थाओं को निजी हाथों में सौंपना और साथ ही उनका व्यवसायीकरण करना। आज भारत जैसे विकासशील राष्ट्र में शिक्षण संस्थाओं के निजीकरण की आवश्यकता महसूस क्यों की गयी ? इसकी वजह है हमारी भारतीय सरकार, जो केवल 2.8% ही शिक्षा पर व्यय करती है। यही कारण है कि सरकारी शिक्षा प्रणाली कमजोर हो गई है और लोगों को निजी संस्थाओं की तरफ पलायन करना पड़ रहा है।

निजीकरण के सकारात्मक प्रभाव-शिक्षा के निजीकरण से अक्षमता, भ्रष्टाचार, शिक्षण उपकरण, प्रयोगशालाएँ और पुस्तकालयों जैसे मानवीय संसाधनों के अपर्याप्त उपयोग को दूर किया जा सका है।

इस तरह के संस्थानों में शिक्षा प्रदान किये जाने से छात्रों को अच्छी व उच्च शिक्षा प्राप्त हो सकी है। इसने शिक्षा के स्तर में सुधार, विकास व फैलाव में बहुत मदद की है और साथ ही शिक्षा की गुणवत्ता को बढ़ाया है।

शिक्षा के निजीकरण से दुष्प्रभाव-यह केवल आर्थिक रूप से समृद्ध वर्ग के लिए अनुकूल है, इसने अंग्रेजी शिक्षा को विस्तृत रूप प्रदान किया है। मध्यम व निम्न वर्ग के लोग इन संस्थानों का शुल्क भी नहीं दे पाते हैं, जिस कारण बच्चे अच्छी शिक्षा प्राप्त करने से वंचित रह जाते हैं। यह समर्थ और असमर्थ के बीच एक खाई उत्पन्न करती है।

उपसंहार-शैक्षिक संस्थानों के प्रशासकों के लिए समय आ गया है कि शिक्षा की पवित्रता और महत्ता को महसूस करें और इसका व्यवसायीकरण न करें। सरकार उचित कानून बनाकर शिक्षा के निजीकरण से उत्पन्न समस्याओं को रोके ताकि देश की नींव को सुरक्षित रखा जा सके।

(ख) समय की कमी से जूझता महानगरीय जीवन

महानगर की जीवन-शैली-मनुष्य जितना प्रगति की ओर अग्रसर हो रहा है, उतनी ही उसकी आवश्यकताएँ बढ़ती जा रही हैं। अपनी इन आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ति के लिए वह एक स्थान से दूसरे स्थान को पलायन कर रहा है। इसी क्रम में मनुष्य ने अच्छे जीवन-यापन के लिए शहर की ओर कदम बढ़ाए। महानगरीय जीवन को एक महत्वपूर्ण आकर्षण होता है और वह आकर्षण है-आधुनिकता की चमक-दमक। इसमें कोई संदेह नहीं है कि आज महानगरीय जीवन समय की कमी से जूझ रहा है। ऐसा लगता है कि महानगरों में जीवन दौड़ रहा है। यहाँ हर कोई व्यस्त है। रेल की गति से दौड़ते महानगरों में आदमी की दिनचर्या इतनी व्यस्त हो चुकी है कि उसे दिन के 24 घंटे भी कम लगने लगे हैं। सुबह से लेकर शाम तक काम, काम ही बस काम। आराम के लिए तो महानगर के लोगों को समय ही नहीं है।

उन्नति की अंधी दौड़-हमारे देश में दिल्ली, कोलकाता, चेन्नई तथा मुम्बई की गणना महानगरों में की जाती है। इन महानगरों का विशेष आकर्षण है। इन-महानगरों में विश्व की आधुनिकतम सुविधाएँ उपलब्ध हैं। यहाँ रोजगार के साधन हैं तथा शिक्षा एवं परिवहन की अच्छी व्यवस्था है। यहाँ की गगनचुंबी इमारतें जनसाधारण के लिए कौतूहल का विषय बनती हैं। ये इमारतें महानगरों के सौंदर्य में चार

चाँद लगा देती हैं। महानगरों में पाई जाने वाली इन सुख-सुविधाओं की ओर जनसाधारण सहज आकर्षित होता है। वह यहाँ कभी बेहतर जिन्दगी की लालसा में तो कभी रोजगार की तलाश में आता है तथा यहीं का होकर रह जाता है। इसमें कोई संदेह नहीं है कि महानगरीय जीवन संपन्न लोगों के लिए ही वरदान है।

मानवीय मूल्यों का पतन-बेहतर आमदनी के कारण ये सम्पन्न व्यक्ति कार, ए.सी. तथा विलासिता की वस्तुओं का प्रयोग कर स्वर्गिक सुख की अनुभूति करते हैं। इसके अलावा चिकित्सा सम्बन्धी सुविधाएँ, खाद्य वस्तुओं की बे-मौसम उपलब्धता, न्यायालय, पुस्तकालय इत्यादि की समुचित व्यवस्था महानगर का आकर्षण बढ़ाते हैं जिससे यह वरदान जैसा लगता है। महानगरों की बढ़ती जनसंख्या के अनुपात में मूलभूत सुविधाओं में वृद्धि न होने से यहाँ अधिकतम निवासियों का जीवन दूभर हो गया है। एक ओर गगनचुंबी रूपी इमारतें चाँद हैं, तो वहीं उसमें लगा दाग ये झुग्गी-झोपड़ियाँ। यहाँ एक ओर तो सम्पन्न लोगों के पास बीस-बीस कमरे हैं, तो वहीं दूसरी ओर एक कमरे में बीस-बीस लोग रहने को विवश हैं। इसके अलावा यहाँ न पीने को शुद्ध पानी है और न साँस लेने के लिए स्वच्छ हवा है। मानवीय मूल्यों का पतन हो रहा है।

कृत्रिमता-आज मशीनों से खेलते-खेलते मनुष्य भी पूरी तरह मशीन ही बनता जा रहा है। इस यांत्रिक युग में वह पैसा छापने की मशीन बन गया है। आज उसके पास दूसरों के लिए ही नहीं, बल्कि अपने व अपने परिवार के लिए भी समय का अभाव है। उसकी इस अति व्यस्तता ने उसको भौतिक सुख-सुविधाएँ तो दी हैं, किन्तु उसके जीवन में सुख-चैन के उन पलों को छीन लिया है, जिसमें प्रेम पनपता था, रिश्तों में मजबूती आती थी, एक-दूसरे के सुख-दुख के पलों में समान भागीदारी होती थी तथा आपसी विश्वास की नाजुक डोर मजबूत होती थी।

तनावे-आज महानगरों में पारिवारिक तनाव, घुटन, निराशा, सगे रिश्ते-नातों में तनातनी आदि लोगों के सामाजिक जीवन में दिखाई देने लगी हैं। वृद्धाश्रम में अपनों द्वारा ठुकराए वृद्धों की संख्या का बढ़ना, जीवन का अपने तक ही सिमट जाना, सामाजिकता का दायरा सिकुड़ना इसी व्यस्तता से उपजी विसंगतियाँ हैं।

संयमित जीवन-शैली अपनाने का आह्वान-मनुष्य को चाहिए कि दौड़ते-भागते इसे जीवन में कुछ समय अपने व अपनों के लिए जरूर निकालें, वरना इस दौड़ने-भागने में सुख-चैन जैसे शब्द उसके जीवन के शब्दकोश से हटते बहुत अधिक देर नहीं लगेगी और वह उस सुकून के लिए तरस जाएगा, जो उसकी रूह में समाकर उसे चैन देती है।

(ग) छात्र असंतोष

भूमिका–छात्र असंतोष का आशय है-विद्यार्थियों को वर्तमान शिक्षा एवं शिक्षा प्रणाली से असंतुष्ट होना। विद्यार्थियों की यह असंतुष्टि किसी पाठ्यक्रम को लेकर हो सकती है, शिक्षण प्रक्रिया को लेकर हो सकती है अथवा परीक्षा के मापदंड को लेकर हो सकती है। हम कई बार देखते हैं कि कुछ विद्यार्थियों को उनके पसंदीदा पाठ्यक्रमों अथवा स्थानों में प्रवेश नहीं मिल पाने के कारण भी उनमें असंतोष की भावना घर कर लेती है।

सम्पन्न परिवारों के बच्चे तो अधिक शुल्क देकर निजी शिक्षण संस्थाओं में मनपसंद पाठ्यक्रम में प्रवेश पाने में सफल रहते हैं, किन्तु निर्धन विद्यार्थियों के सामने धन के अभाव में पढ़ाई छोड़ने या पारम्परिक सस्ते पाठ्यक्रमों में प्रवेश लेने के अतिरिक्त कोई अन्य विकल्प नहीं बचता। इस स्थिति में उनके भीतर स्वाभाविक रूप से शिक्षा के प्रति असंतोष की भावना उत्पन्न हो जाती है और वे सम्पूर्ण शिक्षा तंत्र को कोसने लगते हैं।

छात्र असंतोष का प्रभाव-सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी के इस उन्नत युग में भी व्यावसायिक शिक्षा की अपेक्षित व्यवस्था भारत में अब तक नहीं हो पाई है। इसके कारण शिक्षित बेरोजगारी की स्थिति उत्पन्न हो जाती है। शिक्षा के निजीकरण के कारण उच्च शिक्षा प्रदान करने वाले शिक्षण संस्थानों की बाढ़ तो आ गई, किन्तु इन संस्थानों में विद्यार्थियों का अत्यधिक शोषण होता है। अतः विद्यार्थियों के पास कुंठित होकर अपनी किस्मत को कोसने के अलावा और कोई रास्ता शेष नहीं बचता।

शिक्षा का उद्देश्य-शिक्षा जीवनभर चलने वाली एक प्रक्रिया है, इसलिए समाज एवं देश के लिए इसके उद्देश्य का निर्धारण करना आवश्यक है, चूँकि समाज एवं देश में समय के अनुसार परिवर्तन होते रहते हैं, इसलिए शिक्षा के उद्देश्य में भी समय के अनुसार परिवर्तन होते हैं। इसके लिए व्यावसायिक शिक्षा प्रदान करने वाले शिक्षण संस्थानों की स्थापना पर्याप्त संख्या में करनी होगी। इसके अतिरिक्त राजनीति को शिक्षा से दूर रखना होगा और यह सुनिश्चित करना होगा कि इन संस्थाओं में शिक्षक एवं कर्मचारी अपनी मनमानी कर विद्यार्थियों का भविष्य चौपट न कर पाएँ।

उपसंहार-छात्र असंतोष को दूर करने के लिए सबसे पहले देश की शिक्षा व्यवस्था में सुधार कर इसे वर्तमान समय के अनुरूप करना होगा।

उत्तर 13.

सेवा में,
स्वास्थ्य अधिकारी
कानपुर नगर महापालिका
कानपुर
दिनांक : 11 मई 20xx
विषय-मच्छरों का बढ़ता हुआ प्रकोप
महोदय,
मैं आपका ध्यान बढ़ते हुए मच्छरों के प्रकोप की ओर आकर्षित करना चाहता हूँ। मैं अनमोल नगर क्षेत्र का निवासी हूँ। पूरे अनमोल नगर क्षेत्र में आजकल मच्छरों का भयंकर उत्पात छाया हुआ है। दिन हो या रात, मच्छरों की वजह से सभी परेशान हैं। मच्छरों के कारण घर-घर में मलेरिया की बीमारी फैल रही है। प्राय: सभी घरों में कोई-न-कोई मलेरिया का रोगी मिल जाएगा। इन मच्छरों के कारण स्वास्थ्य पर बहुत बुरा असर पड़ा है।

हमारे क्षेत्र में मच्छरों की अधिकता का बड़ा कारण है-पानी के जमे हुए तालाब और गली-मुहल्लों में फैली चौड़ी-चौड़ी गंदी नालियाँ। उन कच्ची नालियों को व्यवस्थित करने की कोई व्यवस्था नहीं हुई है। मुहल्ले के सफाईकर्मी इस ओर ध्यान नहीं देते, इसलिए नालियों में सदा मल जमा रहता है। लोग अपने घरों के गंदे जल को बाहर यूँ ही बिखरा देते हैं, जिससे मार्गों के गड्ढे भर जाते हैं। नगरपालिका इसके प्रति लापरवाह है। हमने कई बार निवेदन किया है कि हमारे क्षेत्र के तालाब को भरवा दिया जाए, जिससे मच्छरों का मुख्य अड्डा समाप्त हो जाए, किन्तु इस ओर कभी ध्यान नहीं दिया गया।

इस बार अत्यधिक वर्षा के कारण जगह-जगह जल भराव हो गया है। सब जगह कीचड़, मल और बदबूदार जल का प्रकोप हो गया है। अतः मैं पुनः अनमोल नगर के निवासियों की ओर से आप से साग्रह प्रार्थना करता हूँ कि मच्छरों को समाप्त करने के लिए घरों में मच्छरनाशक दवाई छिड़कने की व्यवस्था की जाए। मलेरिया से बचने के लिए कुनैन बाँटने की व्यवस्था की जाए तथा पूरे क्षेत्र की सफाई के व्यापक प्रबंध किए जाएँ। आशा है आप शीघ्र कार्यवाही करेंगे।
धन्यवाद सहित !
भवदीय
क.ख.ग सचिव,
मुहल्ला सुधार समिति,
अनमोल नगर।

अथवा

अ.ब.स.
7/7, न्यू कॉलोनी,
गुड़गाँव।
दिनांक : 13 जून 20xx
प्रिय चेतन,

मधुर स्मृति !
कैसे हो? आशा है, हिमाचल की बर्फीली वादियों जैसे सुहाने होगे। प्रिय चेतन ! जब से तुमने मुझे मनाली और रोहतांग दरें की सैर कराई है, मेरे मन में सदा उन बर्फीली पहाड़ियों की मूर्ति बनी रहती है। मुझे रह-रहकर चाँदी से भी सुंदर बर्फीली चोटियों की याद आती है। कभी वशिष्ठ आश्रम के पास से बहते हुए जल की याद आती है, कभी हिडिंबा का मंदिर याद आता है। तुम्हारे संग देखे गए मनाली से रोहतांग तक के खूबसूरत रास्ते मैं कभी नहीं भूल सकता। वो मढ़ी, स्नोप्वाइंट ! बर्फ की घाटी में स्लेज पर फिसलना ! तुम्हारे साथ की फोटोग्राफी ! बर्फ के बीचोंबीच बैठकर चाय पीना। बर्फ के खेल खेलना। मेरे जीवन के सबसे सुन्दर और सुहाने पल यही हैं। इसके हर पल में तुम हो! तुम्हारी यादें हैं। तुम्हारा प्रेम है और प्रेम-भरा निमंत्रण है।

प्रिय चेतन ! तुम्हारे निमंत्रण पर मैं इन खूबसूरत दर्शनीय स्थलों का आनन्द उठा सका। इसके लिए मेरे पास धन्यवाद के योग्य शब्द नहीं हैं। बस इतना कहूँगा-आभार ! धन्यवाद!
तुम्हारा,
अ.ब.स.

उत्तर 14.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Hindi A Set 2 1

अथवा

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Hindi A Set 2 2

We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Hindi A Set 2 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Hindi A Set 2, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 5

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 5

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 5

These Sample papers are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 5

Time allowed: 3 hours
Maximum marks : 80

General Instructions

  • The question paper comprises two sections, A and B. You are to attempt both the sections.
  • All questions are compulsory.
  • All questions of Section-A and B are to be attempted separately.
  • There is an internal choice in two questions of three marks each and one question of five marks.
  • Question numbers 1 and 2 in Section-A are one mark question. They are to be answered in one word or in one sentence.
  • Question numbers 3 to 5 in Section-A are two marks questions. These are to be answered in 30 words each.
  • Question numbers 6 to 15 in Section-A are three marks questions. These are to be answered in about 50 words each.
  • Question numbers 16 to 21 in Section-A are 5 mark questions. These are to be answered in 70 words each.
  • Question numbers 22 to 27 in Section-B are based on practical skills. Each question is a two marks question. These are to be answered in brief.

SECTION-A

Question 1.
Where are guard cells found and what is their function ?  [1]

Question 2.
What are the large number of filtering units found in the kidney known as ?  [1]

Question 3.
What is an alloy ? Give two examples.  [2]

Question 4.
When you look at a lemon kept inside water in a glass dish it appears bigger than its actual size. Can you explain why ?  [2]

Question 5.
What kind of movement is seen in the roots of plants ?  [2]

Question 6.
Show by ray diagram the nature, position and size of the image formed by a convex mirror when the object lies between infinity and pole of the mirror.  [3]

OR

Define magnification produced by spherical mirrors and how does it help us in finding out if an image is real or virtual ?

Question 7.
On what factors does the strength of an electromagnet depend ?  [3]

Question 8.
Why acids do not show acidic behaviour in the absence of water ?  [3]

Question 9.
Why is carbon able to form a large number of molecules ?  [3]

Question 10.
Why are forests called biodiversity hotspots ? Who are the stakeholders in the conservation of forests ?  [3]

OR

How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of:

  1. Forests and wildlife
  2. Water resources
  3. Coal and petroleum.

Question 11.
How is self-pollination different from cross-pollination ? Give examples where we find them.  [3]

Question 12.
Compute the heat generated while transferring 96000 coulombs of charge in one hour through a potential difference of 50 V.  [3]

Question 13.
How does the electronic configuration of an atom relate to its position in the Modem Periodic Table ?  [3]

OR

Elements have been arranged in the following sequence on the basis of their increasing atomic masses.

F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K.

(a) Pick two sets of elements which have similar properties.
(b) The given sequence represents which law of classification of elements ?

Question 14.
What are plant hormones ? Give some examples.  [3]

Question 15.
State the changes that take place in the uterus when:  [3]
(a) Implantation of embryo has occurred.
(b) Female gamete or egg is not fertilised.

Question 16.
An electric lamp, whose resistance is 20 Ω and a conductor of 4 Ω resistance are connected to a 6 V battery. Calculate:  [5]

  1. the total resistance of the circuit,
  2. the current through the circuit, and
  3. the potential difference across the electric lamp and conductor.

Question 17.
What are the properties of ethanoic acid ?  [5]

OR

(a) Methane is burned in sufficient air.
(b) Ethanoic acid is reacted with sodium hydroxide
(c) Ethanoic acid is treated with sodium carbonate.
(d) Ethanol is treated with sodium.
(e) Ethanol is mixed with ethanoic acid in the presence of an acid.

Question 18.
Human beings are on top of any food-chain. Is this harmful to humans in the long run ? Does the term biological magnification apply here ?  [5]

Question 19..
Sometimes after a shower of rain we can see a colourful rainbow. Explain its formation on the basis of reflection, refraction or dispersion.  [5]

Question 20.
What is thermal decomposition ? Are decomosition reactions opposite of combination reactions ? Show with examples.  [5]

Question 21.
What are the different methods of contraception ?  [5]

OR

Why is the process of menstruation necessary ?

SECTION-B

Question 22.
What is an alloy ? Name some things made up of alloys that we use daily.  [2]

Question 23.
An element has an atomic number of 6 and a mass number of 12. Find out which group and period it belongs to. [2]

Question 24.
How is sex determined in human beings ? Show with the help of chromosomes.  [2]

Question 25.
When we chew bread it tastes sweet. Why ? What is the role of saliva in digestion of food ?  [2]

Question 26.
Show the path of light through a triangular glass prism with a neat labelled diagram.  [2]

OR

Draw a ray diagram to show the principal focus of a concave mirror.

Question 27.
Which uses more energy: a 250 W T.V. set in one hour or a 1200 W toaster in 10 minutes ?  [2]

ANSWERS
SECTION-A

Answer 1.
Guard cells are found on either side of the stomata on the surface of leaves. Stomata are small pores through which gaseous exchange and evaporation of water takes place. The bean shaped guard cells swell when water flows into them causing the stomata to open. Similarly when the guard cells shrink the pore closes.

Answer 2.
The large number of filtering units in the kidney are known as nephrons. Each nephron has two parts, renal corpuscle and renal tubule. The renal corpuscle consists of a bunch of capillaries called glomerulus present in a cup shaped structure called Bowman’s capsule.

Answer 3.
An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more metals or a metal and a non-metal. It is prepared by first melting the primary metal and then dissolving the other elements in it in definite proportions. It is then cooled to room temperature. Alloying helps to get the good qualities of all the constituents. Some well-known alloys are brass, bronze, solder and amalgam.

Answer 4.
Yes, when we look at a lemon kept inside water in a glass dish it appears bigger than its actual size. This is because of the process of refraction. Light rays, as they pass from air to the water below tend to bend towards the normal at the point of interface.

Answer 5.
The roots of plants show trophic movements. Roots tend to move towards gravity and water so they are said to be positively geotropic and hydrotropic. Roots move away from sunlight and hence are said to be negatively phototropic.

Answer 6.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Set 5 1
When the object lies between infinity and the pole of the convex mirror the image is virtual and erect, between P and F behind the mirror and diminished in size.

OR

Magnification produced by a spherical mirror gives the relative extent to which the image of the object is magnified with respect to the object size. It is expressed as the ratio of the size of the image to the size of the object and is represented by the letter m.

If h is the height of the object and h’ is the height of the image, then magnification m produced by the spherical mirror is given by
m = Height of the image (h’)/Height of the object (h)
Magnification m is also related to the object distance (u) and image distance (υ)
Magnification(m) = h’/h = -υ/u

If the magnification has a plus sign, then the image is virtual and erect and if the magnification has a minus sign, then the image is real and inverted.

Answer 7.
The strength of an electromagnet depends on the following factors:

  • Number of turns in the coil: If we increase the number of turns in the coil, the strength of electromagnet increases.
  • Current flowing in the coil: If the current in the coil is increased, the strength of electromagnet increases.
  • Length of air gap between its poles : If we reduce the length of air gap between the poles of an electromagnet, then its strength increases.

Answer 8.
Acids do not show acidic behaviour in the absence of water. This is because the H+ions are produced only in the presence of water. The H+ ions cannot exist alone but they exist only after combining with water molecules.
If water is added to HCl the reaction occurs as follows:

HCl + H2O → H30+ Cl-

The separation of H+ ions from the HCl molecule cannot occur in the absence of water. The process of dissolving acid in water is highly exothermic. The acid must be slowly added to the water with constant stirring, water must not be added to the acid.

Answer 9.
Carbon has the unique ability to form bonds with other atoms of carbon giving rise to large molecules. This property is called catenation. We can find compounds with long chains of carbon or even carbon atoms arranged in a ring. In addition carbon atoms can be linked by single, double or triple bonds. As carbon is tetravalent it forms covalent bonds with four other atoms of carbon or atoms of some other monovalent element. These bonds are very strong and so the elements are very stable. Compounds of carbon which are linked by only single bonds between carbon atoms are called saturated compounds. Compounds of carbon having double or triple bonds between their carbon atoms are called unsaturated compounds. No other element exhibits the kind of catenation seen in carbon. This is why we see such a large number of compounds with many carbon atoms linked to each other.

Answer 10.
Forests are called biodiversity hotspots because they support a huge variety of life forms. The range of different life forms like bacteria, fungi, ferns, flowering plants, nematodes, insects, birds, reptiles make up the forest biodiversity. The stakeholders in the conservation of forests are:

  1. The people who live in and around forests depend on the forest produce for various aspects of their life.
  2. The Forest department of the Government which owns the land and controls the resources from the forests.
  3. The industrialists who use the various forest resources but are not dependent on the forest for any particular thing.
  4. The wildlife and nature enthusiasts who want to conserve nature in its pristine form.

OR

(a) Forests and wild life:

  • Large scale afforestation programmes.
  • Avoid cutting down of trees.
  • To educate people about the importance of forests by organizing slogans events, programmes and campaigns.

(b) Water resources:

  • By closing the water taps and repairing leaky pipes and taps to save water.
  • Harvesting and conserving water.
  • Avoid polluting water and create awareness among people to save water.

(c) Coal and petroleum:

  • Minimum utilization of fossil fuels and using more alternative sources of energy like solar energy.
  • We can use public transport instead of our personal vehicles.
  • We can walk to nearby places instead of using vehicles.
  • Proper maintenance of vehicles and use of efficient internal combustion engines.
  • Use of CNG instead of petrol or diesel.

Answer 11.
Self-pollination is the process by which pollen-grains are transferred from the anther to the stigma of the same flower. This is generally found in bisexual flowers like hibiscus, mustard etc. Whereas cross-pollination is the process by which pollen-grains are transferred from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower either in the same plant or another plant. This is found in unisexual flowers or unisexual plants. Some examples are papaya, watermelon, pumpkin etc.

Answer 12.
Given: V = 50 V, Q = 96000 C, t = 1 hour = 60 x 60 = 3600 sec
We know that,
Electric current (I) = \(\frac { Q }{ t } =\frac { 96000 }{ 3600 } A\)
Now,
Heat (H) =VIt
= \(50\times \frac { 96000 }{ 3600 } \times 3600\)
= 50 x 96000 J = 4800000 J = 4.8 x 106 J

Answer 13.
The electronic configuration of an atom gives us the atomic number of an element as the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in the atom. The atomic number of an element is a more fundamental property than its atomic mass. The Modern Periodic Table has 18 vertical columns known as groups and 7 horizontal rows known as periods. The elements present in a group have the same number of valence electrons. In other words groups in the Modern Periodic Table signify an identical outer shell electronic configuration. Similarly in a period, the atomic number increases by one unit as we move from left to right. The position of an element in the table tells us about its chemical reactivity.

OR

(a) (i) F and Cl
(ii) Na and K.
(b) Newland’s law of octaves.

Answer 14.
Plant hormones are chemicals that help to coordinate growth, development and responses to the environment. They are synthesised at places far away from where they act and simply diffuse to the area of action. Some of the plant hormones are auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins and abscisic acid.

  • Auxins help the cells to grow longer.
  • Gibberellins promote growth of the stem.
  • Cytokinins promote cell division and found in places requiring rapid cell division as in fruits and seeds.
  • Abscisic acid inhibits growth and it has a role in the wilting of flowers.

Answer 15.

  1. When implantation has occurred in uterus of the mother, the inner lining of the uterus thickens and is richly supplied with the blood vessels to provide nourishment to the growing embryo,
  2. If the egg is not fertilised, it lives for about one day. Since, the thickened uterus lining is no more required, it will slowly breakdown and comes out through the vagina as blood and mucous known as menstruation which lasts for about two to eight days.

Answer 16.
Given: Resistance of the electric lamp, R1 = 20 Ω
Resistance of the conductor, R2 = 4 Ω
(a) Total resistance in the circuit = R1 + R2 = 20 Ω + 4 Ω = 24 Ω
(b) Total potential difference = 6 V
By Ohm’s law, the current (I) flowing through the circuit will be = V/R
\(\frac { 6 }{ 24 } \) Ω
= 0.25 A
(c) On applying Ohm’s law to the lamp and conductor separately, we get
Potential difference across the electric lamp =I x R1 = 0.25 x 20 = 5 V
Potential difference across the conductor = I x R2 = 0.25 x 4 = 1 V

Answer 17.
Ethanoic acid is commonly called acetic acid and belongs to the group called carboxylic acids. The melting point of pure ethanoic acid is 290 K and hence it often freezes during winter in cold climates. So it is also known as glacial acetic acid. 5-8% solution of acetic acid in water is called vinegar which is used as a preservative in pickles. Carboxylic acids are weak acids.
Ethanoic acid reacts with ethyl alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce esters.

CH3COOH + C2H5OH → CH3COOC2H5

They are sweet substances used in making perfumes and as flavouring agents. Esters react in the presence of an acid or a base to give back the alcohol and carboxylic acid. This reaction is called saponification reaction. It is used in the preparation of soap.

OR

  • CH4 + 5O2 → CO2 + H2O + Heat + Light
  • CH3COOH + NaOH → CH3COONa + H2O
  • CH3COOH + Na2CO3 → 2CH3COONa + H2O + CO2
  • 2CH3CH2OH + 2Na → 2C2H5ONa + H2
  • CH3COOH + CH3CH2OH → CH3COOCH2CH3 + H2O

Answer 18.
Human beings are on top of any food chain. This means the maximum concentration of several harmful chemicals get accumulated in the human bodies. This is also called biological magnification. We have seen how water is polluted by different substances. Pesticides and some chemicals are used to protect crops from pests. These enter the soil and the water that flows on this soil. When this water is absorbed by the roots of plants it enters the plants. Similarly when aquatic animals drink water some chemicals enter their bodies too.

These chemicals then enter the food chain. As they are not degraded they are gradually accumulated in each trophic level. Finally all of them reach the human bodies. Food grains like rice, wheat, vegetables, fruits, and meat contain varying amounts of pesticide residues. It is difficult to completely remove them by washing. Hence any organism at the top of the food chain is likely to get a fairly large amount of the harmful substances that enter the food chain at every level. So the effect of the various pollutants is maximised in human beings.

Answer 19.
A rainbow is a natural spectrum appearing in the sky after a rain shower. It is caused by dispersion of sunlight by tiny droplets present in the atmosphere. A rainbow is always formed in a direction opposite to that of the Sun. The water droplets act like small prisms. They refract and disperse the incident sunlight, then reflect it internally and finally refract it again when it comes out of the raindrop. The dispersion of light and internal reflection make different colours visible to the observer’s eye. A rainbow is also seen on a sunny day when we look at the sky through a waterfall or through a water fountain with the Sun behind us.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Set 5 2

Answer 20.
Thermal decomposition is a decomposition reaction carried out by heating. The decomposition of calcium carbonate into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide on heating is an example of thermal decomposition. The calcium oxide formed is also called lime or quicklime.

CaCO3(s) \(\underrightarrow { on\quad heating } \) CaO(s) + CO2(g)

Yes decomposition reactions can be regarded as opposite of combination reactions. Decomposition reactions require energy in the form of heat, light or electricity to break down the reactants. Such reactions which absorb energy are called endothermic reactions. On the other hand, in combination reactions heat is given out. Such reactions are called exothermic reactions. Here are some examples.
(i) Glucose combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water with the liberation of energy.

C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g) → 6CO2(aq) + 6H2O(I) + Energy

(ii)Methane or natural gas burning in air forms carbon dioxide and water.

CH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2(g)

Answer 21.
The different methods of contraception come under different categories:

  1. Those that create a mechanical barrier so that the sperm does not reach the egg. They include condoms on the penis or similar coverings on the vagina.
  2. A second category acts by changing the hormonal balance of the body so that eggs are not released and fertilisation does not occur. These are drugs taken as oral pills. However as they change hormonal balance they cause side effects too.
  3. There are contraceptive devices placed in the uterus such as the loop or the copper T to prevent pregnancy. This could cause side effects like irritation in the uterus
  4. Surgery is used to create blocks in the vas deferens of the male so that sperm transfer is prevented. Surgery is also used to block the fallopian tube so that the egg does not reach the uterus. While surgical methods are safe in the long run surgery itself could cause infections and other prob¬lems if not done properly.

OR

Menstruation is the monthly cycle in the female reproductive system where the unfertilised egg is shed along with the uterine lining once in 28 days. The female germ cells or eggs are made in the ovary. One egg is produced every month by one of the ovaries. The egg is carried from the ovary to the womb through the fallopian tube. The egg lives for about a day if it is not fertilised. As the ovary produces one egg per month the uterus also prepares itself to receive a fertilised egg every month. So it develops a thick and spongy lining. This would help to nourish the embryo and fertilisation take place. When fertilisation does not occur, this lining is not needed anymore. It breaks and slowly comes out through the vagina as blood and mucous. The menstrual cycle lasts for about three to five days. Thus menstruation is necessary to get rid of the unfertilised egg and prepare the next egg and uterus for a possible fertilisation and pregnancy.

SECTION-B

Answer 22.
An alloy is a combination of metals or a metal and a non-metal so that the alloy has the good qualities of both the constituents. Steel is an alloy of iron, nickel and chromium. It is hard and does not rust. It is used to make a wide variety of vessels used in the kitchen. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin. Solder is an alloy of lead and tin.

Answer 23.
The element has atomic number 6 and mass number 12. This means it has 6 electrons around the nucleus. Its valency is 4 so it belongs to the 4th period and 4th group.

Answer 24.
In human being sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the father.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Set 5 3
In human beings, males have an XY chromosome pair as their sex chromosomes while females have XX chromosome pair as their sex chromosomes.

Answer 25.
When we chew bread it tastes sweet because the enzymes in saliva convert the starch in bread to sugar. Saliva helps in bringing together the chewed bits of food in the mouth and rolling them together into the bolus to be pushed into the food pipe. Saliva contains the enzyme salivary amylase that converts starch into sugar.

Answer 26.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Set 5 4

Answer 27.
We know that,
Energy (E) = Power (P) x Time (t)
E1 = 250 W x 1 hr = 250 Wh
E2 = 1200 W x 10 min
1200 W x \(\frac { 10 }{ 60 } hr\) = 200Wh
The T.V. set uses more energy.

We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 5 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 5, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7

These Sample papers are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7.

Time allowed: 3 hours
Maximum marks : 80

General Instructions

  • The question paper comprises two sections, A and B. You are to attempt both the sections.
  • All questions are compulsory.
  • All questions of Section-A and B are to be attempted separately.
  • There is an internal choice in two questions of three marks each and one question of five marks.
  • Question numbers 1 and 2 in Section-A are one mark question. They are to be answered in one word or in one sentence.
  • Question numbers 3 to 5 in Section-A are two marks questions. These are to be answered in 30 words each.
  • Question numbers 6 to 15 in Section-A are three marks questions. These are to be answered in about 50 words each.
  • Question numbers 16 to 21 in Section-A are 5 mark questions. These are to be answered in 70 words each.
  • Question numbers 22 to 27 in Section-B are based on practical skills. Each question is a two marks question. These are to be answered in brief.

SECTION – A

Question. 1.
Look at the food chain : Plants → Sheep → Man. If plants had a total energy of 30000 joule what will be the amount of energy available to man ?

Question. 2.
How is the small intestine designed to absorb digested food ?

Question. 3.
Oil and fat containing food items are flushed with nitrogen. Why ?

Question. 4.
“A convex lens of focal length ‘ f ‘ can form a magnified, erect as well as inverted image.” Justify this statement stating the position of the object with respect to the lens in each case for obtaining these images.

Question. 5.
What are the smallest and thinnest blood vessels known as ? Why do they have such thin walls ?

Question. 6.
Define resistance. Write the SI unit of resistance and define it. Match the correct range of resistivity with the materials given.
(a) Conductors    (i) 10-6 Ωm
(b) Alloys             (ii) 1012 to 1017 Ωm
(c) Insulators       (iii) 10-6 to 10-8 Ωm
OR
The figure below shows three cylindrical copper conductors along with their face areas and lengths. Discuss in which geometrical shape the resistance will be highest.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7 1

Question. 7.
A circuit is shown in the diagram given below :

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7 2
(a) Find the value of R.
(b) Find the reading of the ammeter.
(c) Find the potential difference across the terminals of the battery.

Question. 8.
(a) What is the importance of pH in everyday life ?
(b) How are sodium hydroxide and Cl2 gas are produced from common salt. What is this process called ?

Question. 9.
Define the terms :
(a) Mineral
(b) Ore
(c) Gangue.

Question. 10.
Distinguish between acquired trait and inherited trait giving an example of each.
OR
“Natural selection and speciation lead to evolution.” Is this statement correct justify it.

Question. 11.
Why are coal and petroleum categorised as natural resources. Why should they be used carefully ?

Question. 12.
A concave mirror produces three times magnified (enlarged) real image of an object placed at 10 cm in front of it. Where is the image located ?

Question. 13.
Compare and contrast the arrangement of elements in Mendeleev’s Periodic Table and the Modem Periodic Table.
OR
Atomic number of a few elements are 10,20,7,14 :
(a) Identify the elements
(b) Identify the group number of these elements in the Periodic Table.
(c) Identify the periods of these elements in the Periodic Table.
(d) What would be the electronic configuration for each of these elements ?
(e) Determine the valency of these elements.

Question. 14.
What are unisexual and bisexual flowers ? What is pollination and the types of pollination ? Name the agents of pollination.

Question. 15.
What is a self-sustaining ecosystem ? Explain.

Question. 16.
A student fixes a sheet of white paper on a drawing board. He places a bar magnet at the centre of it. He sprinkles some iron filings uniformly around the bar magnet. Then he taps the board gently and observes that the iron filings arrange themselves in a particular pattern.
(a) Why do the iron filings arrange in a pattern ?
(b) What is indicated by the crowding of iron filings at the end of the magnet ?
(c) What do the lines along which the iron filings align represent ?
(d) Draw a neat diagram to show the magnetic field lines around a bar magnet.
(e) Write any two properties of magnetic field lines.

Question. 17.
Why are carbon compounds poor conductors of electricity and have low melting and boiling points ?
OR
What is the difference between the chemical composition of soaps and detergents ? State in brief the action of soaps in removing an oily spot from a shirt. Why are soaps not considered suitable for washing where water is hard ?

Question. 18.
What are reflex actions ? Give examples. Explain reflex arc by an example with labelled diagram ?

Question. 19.
You are given lenses with powers +10 D, + 5 D, – 5 D, – 20 D and -10 D. Taking a pair of lenses at a time, which two lenses will you select to have a combination of total focal length when the two lenses are kept in contact in each case.

(a) 20 cm
(b) – 10 cm
(c) – 20 cm
(d) \(\frac { 20 }{ 3 }\) cm

Question. 20.
What is water of crystallisation ? Name some elements that have these water of crystallisation molecules.

Question. 21.
What are dams ? Give some examples of major dams in our country. State some benefits of constructing dams.
OR
What do you mean by watershed management ? What is its main aim ? What are the advantages of watershed management ?

SECTION – B

Question. 22.
When you add a pinch of sodium hydrogen carbonates to acetic acid in a test tube what happens ? Explain with a chemical equation.

Question. 23.
If we pour acetic acid on red litmus paper and blue litmus paper, what happens ?

(a) Red litmus remains red and blue litmus turns red.
(b) Red litmus turns blue and blue litmus remains blue.
(c) Red litmus turns blue and blue litmus turns red.
(d) Red litmus turns colourless and blue litmus remains blue.

Question. 24.
If you find coliform bacteria in a sample of potable water, what does it mean ? Explain.

Question. 25.
“The maximum concentration of harmful chemicals accumulates in human beings.” State the phenomenon involved and justify this statement.

Question. 26.
In an experiment to find the equivalent resistance of a series combination of two resistors R1 and R2, a student uses the circuit shown here. Will the circuit give the correct reading for current I and voltage V ? Justify your answer.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7 3

The given circuit diagram shows the experimental arrangement of different circuit components for determination of equivalent resistance of two resistors connected in series. Identify the components X, Y and Z shown in the circuit respectively.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7 4

Question. 27.
Study the ray diagram given below and answer the following questions :

(a) State the type of lens used in figure.
(b) List two properties of the image formed.
(c) In which position of the object will the magnification be – 1 ?

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7 5

ANSWERS

SECTION – A

Answer. 1.
We know that in a food chain only 10% of the energy moves to the next level. So by the 10% law, plants = 30,000 J, sheep will get 3,000 J energy, man will get 300 J energy.

Answer. 2.
Small intestine is the part in which maximum absorption of digested food occurs. It has numerous tiny finger like projections called villi which increases the surface area for maximum absorption of nutrients. The villi are richly supplied with blood vessels where nutrients are absorbed by the process of diffusion into the blood stream.

Answer. 3.
Oil and fat containing food items are flushed with nitrogen because it is an inert gas and does not easily react with these substances. On the other hand, oxygen reacts with food substances and makes them rancid. Thus, bags used in packing food items are flushed with nitrogen gas to remove oxygen inside the pack. When oxygen is not present inside the pack, rancidity of oil and fat containing food items is avoided.

Answer. 4.
A convex lens of focal length’ f ‘ can form :

  1. a magnified and erect image only, when the object is placed between the focus and the optical centre of the lens.
  2. an inverted image, when the object is placed beyond the focus of the lens.

Answer. 5.
The smallest and thinnest blood vessels are known as capillaries. On reaching an organ or tissue, the artery divides into smaller and smaller vessels to bring the blood in contact with all individual cells. These small vessels are just one cell thick and are the capillaries. Their thin walls help in the exchange of material between the blood and the surrounding cells. The capillaries then join together to form the veins that carry blood away from the organ or tissue. They are in fact like a middle man between the arteries and the veins.

Answer. 6.

Resistance : The opposition offered by the material of a conducting wire to the flow of current through it is called resistance of the wire.

SI unit of resistance : Ohm (Ω), IΩ is defined as the resistance of a conductor which allows 1A of current through it when 1V potential difference is applied across its ends.

Matching :
(a) Conductors    (i) 10-6 Ωm
(b) Alloys            (iii) 10-6 to 10-8 Ωm
(c) Insulators       (ii) 1012 to 1017 Ωm
OR
For geometrical shape shown in :

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7 6

Therefore, resistance of geometrical shape shown in figure (ii) will be highest.

Answer. 7.
(a) P.d. across 6 Ω = 12 V
∴ Current through 6 Ω, I = \(\frac { V }{ R } =\frac { 1 }{ 6 } \) = 2 A
As R and 6 Ω are connected in series. So, the current through R is 2 A.
Using Ohm’s law, R = \(\frac { V }{ 1 } =\frac { 6 }{ 2 } \) = 3 Ω
(b) Reading of ammeter = 2 A
(c) P.d. across the terminals of the battery
V = V1 + V2 = 6 + 12 = 18 V

Answer. 8.
(a) Our stomatch produces hydrochloric acid which helps in digestion of food. It has pH around 1.2. If excess acid is produced, it causes pain and irritation. It can be controlled by taking antacids which controls the pH in the stomach.
(b) Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in our body. It gets corroded slowly when pH in the mouth is below 5.5. Acid is produced in mouth due to degradation of food which is partially hydrolysed by saliva. But if excess acid is produced, it causes tooth decay.

Answer. 9.

(a) Mineral : It is naturally occurring substance from which metal may or may not be extracted profitably or economically, example, A1 cannot be extracted profitably from mica.
(b) Ore : A naturally occurring solid material from which a metal or valuable mineral can be extracted profitably. Example, Zinc blende is an ore of zinc from which zinc can be extraced profitably.
(c) Gangue: It is a rocky material which is present along with the mineral in the ore, example FeO is gangue in extraction of copper.

Answer. 10.

Acquired trait

  1. These are traits that have been developed by the individual during his or her lifetime.
  2. They are changes brought about in the non- reproductive tissues.
  3. They cannot be inherited i.e. passed on to the progeny.
  4. Some examples of acquired traits are muscular body, pierced ears etc.

Inherited trait

  1. These are traits that have been inherited by the individual and so are present right from birth of the individual.
  2. These are the result of changes that have happened intheDNA.
  3. They are characters that will be transmitted to the progeny.
  4. Some examples of inherited characters are skin colour, colour of the eyes, colour of the hair etc.

OR
Natural selection is the process by which nature selects those species which are most fit to survive in a given set of conditions. According to the theory of Natural Selection, there is a struggle for existence within the species of a population for the environmental resources and this struggle leads to the survival of the fit and capable organisms and the elimination of the less competent ones. During this struggle and competition some organisms may undergo genetic changes which helps them in their survival. These better adapted organisms would thus survive and pass on their traits to the next generation. After several generations, these changes would gradually lead to evolution. The formation of a new species from an existing one due to reproductive isolation of a part of its population is called speciation. Reproductive isolation can occur due to geographic isolation and with time  genetic drift will help accumulate different variations in each of the geographically isolated sub-populations. Ultimately individuals of these two groups will become reproductively isolated leading to the formation and evolution of a new species. Thus, we can say both natural selection and speciation lead to the evolution of a new species.

Answer. 11.
Natural resources are those living and non-living sources available in our environment which are exploited to meet the human requirements. Since coal and petroleum are actually the fossil remains of dead plants and animals respectively, they are considered as natural resources. Both coal and petroleum have been used as important sources of energy since a long time back. They were formed millions of years ago by the gradual degradation of biomass. Since these fossil fuels are non-renewable in nature and they have limited reserves, therefore, they need to be used judiciously or else they would get exhausted soon. That is why all human beings are repeatedly being asked to be careful in the use of these fossil fuels.

Answer 12.
In this problem, we have been given magnification (m) and object distance (u). We are to find out the image distance (υ). Now,
Magnification, m = – 3 (Image is real)
Object distance, u = -10 cm (To the left of mirror)
Image distance, υ = ? (To be calculated)
Putting these values in the magnification formula for a mirror :

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7 7

Thus, the image is located at a distance of 30 cm in front of the mirror (on its left side).

Answer. 13.

Mendeleev’s Periodic Table

  1. Elements are arranged in the increasing order of their atomic masses.
  2. There are a total of 7 groups and 6 periods.
  3. Elements having similar properties were placed directly under one another.
  4. Position of isotopes is not clear.
  5. Electronic configuration cannot be predicted from the position of element

Modem Periodic Table

  1. Elements are arranged in the increasing order of their atomic numbers.
  2. There are a total of 18 groups and 7 periods.
  3. Elements having the same valence shell are present in the same period while elements having the same number of valence electrons are present in the same group.
  4. Position of isotopes is clear.
  5. Electronic configuration can be predicted from the position of element.

OR

(a) Elements : Neon (Ne), Calcium (Ca), Nitrogen (N), Silicon (Si)
(b) Group : 18, 2, 15, 14
(c) Period : 2, 4, 2, 3
(d) Electronic configuration : (2,8) ; (2,8,8,2) ; (2,5) ; (2,8,4)
(e) Valency : 0, 2, 3, 4

Answer 14.
Flowers may be unisexual or bisexual. Unisexual flowers may have either the male part calledstamen or the female part called the carpel. Some unisexual flowers are those of papaya, watermelon, pumpkin etc. Bisexual flowers have both the male part (stamen) and the female part (carpel). Some plants with bisexual flowers are hibiscus, mustard, clitoria, rose, sunflower etc.

The stamen consists of two parts, the slender filament and the anther on top. The anther contains the yellow colour pollen grains.

The carpel or pistil consists of three parts, stigma on top, style in the middle and the swollen ovary at the bottom.

The pollen grains contain the male gamete and once it lands on the stigma it develops a pollen tube through which the male gamete moves towards the female gamete which are the ovules in the ovary. Pollination is the process by which the pollen grains are transferred from the anther to the stigma of the flower which is sticky to hold the pollen grains.

When the pollen grains are transferred from the stamen to the stigma of the same flower it is called self-pollination.

When the pollen grains are transferred from one flower to the stigma of another flower it is called cross-pollination.

The agents of pollination are wind, water, insect animals,birds and even human beings

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7 8

Answer. 15.
Living organisms like plants, animals, microorganisms and human beings as well as the physical surroundings interact with each other and maintain a balance in nature. All the interacting organisms in an area together with the non-living constituents of the environment form an ecosystem. Thus, an ecosystem consists of biotic components comprising living organisms and abiotic components comprising physical factors like temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind, soil and minerals. All the living organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other and their growth, reproduction and other activities are affected by the abiotic components of the ecosystem. We find this kind of healthy interaction both in the natural and artificial ecosystems.

In an ecosystem, organisms can be categorised as producers, consumers and decomposers depending on how they obtain their sustenance from the environment. Organisms depend on the producers either directly or indirectly for their sustenance. Consumers can be classified as herbivores, carnivores, omnivores and parasites.

Microorganisms have an important role to play in every ecosystem. Microorganisms like bacteria and fungi help to break down the dead remains of producers and consumers and convert them into simple inorganic substances that go back to the soil so that they can be used again by the plants. In this way there is a natural replenishment of the soil. This is how every ecosystem is said to be self- sustaining. However in the absence of these decomposers this replenishment process is affected. That is why it is very important that no part of the ecosystem is disturbed by our activities.

Answer. 16.
(a) When iron filings are placed in a magnetic field around a bar magnet they behaves likes a tiny magnet (by induction). The magnetic force experienced by these tiny magnets make them to rotate and align themselves along the direction of magnetic field lines. Thus, iron filling arrange themselves in a particular pattern.
(b) The crowding of iron filings at the end of the magnet indicates strong magnetic field at the ends of magnet.
(c) It represents the magnetic field lines around a bar magnet.
(d)
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7 9
(e)
(i) The magnetic field lines never intersect each other.
(ii) Magnetic field lines are closed curve.

Answer. 17.
Carbon compounds are poor conductors of elctricity. Carbon has a valency of 4. To attain the stable configuration of noble gases, carbon atom needs to either gain or lose 4 electrons.

  1. If it were to gain 4 electrons it would become C4- anion, but this makes it difficult to hold on to the 10 electrons.
  2. If it were to lose 4 electrons it would become C4+ cation, but this means a lot of energy would be required to pull out the 4 electrons and leave the carbon atom with 6 protons and 2 electrons.

The easy way out is to share the 4 electrons with atoms of either carbon or other elements. The shared pair is then common to both the atoms. This bond formed by a sharing of electrons is called as covalent bond and such compounds are known as covalent compounds. As there are no charged particles available covalent compounds are poor conductors of electricity. They have low melting and boiling points also.
OR
Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids having – COONa group whereas detergents are sodium or potassium salts of sulphonic acids having – SO3Na and – SO4Na group.
Cleansing action of soap: Soap molecules have two ends one is hydrophobic i.e., water repelling and other is water loving i.e., hydrophilic as shown in figure.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7 10

When a soap is dissolved in water, the molecules associate together as clusters called micelles in which water molecules, being polar in nature, surround the ions and the hydrocarbon part of the molecule attracts grease, oil and dirt.

Inside water, clusters of molecules are formed in which the hydrophobic tails are in the interior of the cluster and ionic ends are present on the surface of cluster. This formation is called micelle formation. To wash away the loosened dirt particles in the form of micelles from the surface of the cloth, it is either scrubbed mechanically, beaten or agitated in washing machine. In the form of a micelle, soap is able to clean, since the oily dirt is being collected in the centre of micelle.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7 11

Answer. 18.
Reflex action is a quick, automatic, involuntary, unconscious response in the body brought about by a stimulus. Examples of reflex action:

  1. Withdrawal of hand suddenly on touching a hot plate.
  2. Withdrawal of finger suddenly when pricked by a thorn.
  3. Shivering of our body on feeling cold.
  4. Sudden closure of our eyelids when bright light falls on our eye.

Reflex arc : It is the shortest route taken by impulse from receptor to effector.
Example : When we touch a hot plate by our finger, we instantly withdraw our hand. Here stimulus is touching a hot plate, receptors are our fingers. The specialized epithelial cells of our fingers respond to stimulus and convert into impulse. This impulse is carried by sensory neuron to spinal cord which generates a motor impulse. This impulse is carried by motor neuron to effector organ i.e., muscles of hand. Response is withdrawal of our hand.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7 12

Answer. 19.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7 13

Answer. 20.
Water of crystallisation is the fixed number of water molecules present in one formula unit of a salt. When we heat the crystals, this water is removed and the salt turns white. 1 formula unit of CuSO4 has 5 water molecules so it is written as CuSO4.5H2O.

Gypsum is a salt which has water of crystallisation. It has 2 water molecules as water of crystallisation. When it is heated it loses the water molecules and becomes calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CaSO4.1/2H2O). This is called Plaster of Paris. It is a white powder and when mixed with water it changes again to gypsum which is a hard solid mass.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science Paper 7 14

  1. This substance is used as plaster for supporting fractured bones in the right position.
  2. It is used for making toys, materials for decoration and for making smooth surfaces.

Answer. 21.
Dams are large water storage bodies built by government agencies to regulate the flow of water and utilize it for benefit of human beings. There are many dams constructed across major rivers in different parts of our country. For examples :

  1. Bhakra dam across river Sutlej in Punj ab.
  2. Tehri dam on river Ganga in Uttarakhand
  3. Mettur dam on river Cauvery in Tamil Nadu.
  4. Sardar Sarovar dam on river Narmada in Gujarat.
  5. Hirakud dam on river Mahanadi in Odisha.

Some benefits of constructing dams are :

  1. It stores adequate amount of water which can be used for irrigation.
  2. Water can be supplied to villages and towns when there is shortage of water through pipelines.
  3. It can be used to generate hydroelectricity.
  4. It can be used for flood control.

OR
Watershed management is concerned with scientific soil and water conservation to increase the production of biomass.
Its main aim is to:

  1. Develop land and water resources, to produce secondary resources of plants and animals without causing any ecological imbalance.
  2. To implant the sustainable management of natural resources to improve the quality of living.
  3. Improvement of quality of soil for better productivity.
  4. Supplying clean and safe drinking water to all.

Advantages of watershed management are :

  1. It enhances the life of downstream dam and reservoirs.
  2. It minimizes the risk of droughts, landslides and floods.
  3. It increases ground water level,
  4. It increases crop production.
  5. Various development activities like hydroelectric power generation, supply water for irrigation and other domestic uses.

SECTION – B

Answer. 22.

  1. Brisk effervescence are evolved.
  2. Evolution of a colourless and odourless gas.

The chemical equation for the reaction is :
CH3COOH + NaHCO3 → CH3COONa + H2O + CO2

Answer. 23.
(a) Red litmus remains red and blue litmus turns red.

Answer. 24.
The presence of coliform bacteria in water indicates that water is contaminated by sewage as sewage contains human excreta. Human excreta contains a lot of disease causing microbes and when this sewage is dumped into rivers or lakes or ponds they get contaminated as coliforms from sewage will come into water.

Answer. 25.
Human beings are always placed at the top of a food chain. The harmful chemicals concentration (non-biodegradable substances) goes on increasing at every trophic level as a result as human beings are placed at the apex of every food chain so maximum concentration of harmful chemicals get accumulated in their body. This phenomenon is called biomagnification.

Answer. 26.
The circuit will give correct reading for current I but incorrect reading for voltage V. The voltmeter has to be put in parallel with the resistances being measured and not across the ammeter.
OR

  • X represents the ammeter as it is connected in series.
  • Y represents the voltmeter as it is connected in parallel.
  • Z represents the rheostat (variable resistance).

Answer. 27.

(a) Convex lens.
(b) Real, inverted, enlarged.
(c) When object is at 2F.

We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science paper 7 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science paper 7, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 is part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium . Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4

Board CBSE
Class X
Subject Science
Sample Paper Set Paper 4
Category CBSE Sample Papers

Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 10 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 4 of Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium is given below with free PDF download solutions.

समय : 3 घण्टे
पूर्णांक : 80

सामान्य निर्देश :

  • इस प्रश्न पत्र के दो भाग, A व B हैं। आप को दोनों भाग करने हैं।
  • सभी प्रश्न अनिवार्य हैं।
  • भाग A के सभी प्रश्न एक साथ करने हैं तथा भाग B के सभी प्रश्न एक साथ करने हैं।
  • भाग A के प्रश्न सं० 1 व 2 एक अंक के हैं। इनका उत्तर एक शब्द अथवा एक वाक्य में लिखना है।
  • प्रश्न सं० 3 से 5 तक दो अंक के हैं। इनका उत्तर 30 शब्दों में (प्रत्येक प्रश्न के लिए) लिखिए।
  • प्रश्न सं० 6 से 15 तक तीन अंक के हैं। इनमें से प्रत्येक प्रश्न का उत्तर 50 शब्दों में लिखिए।
  • प्रश्न सं० 16 से 21 तक पाँच अंक के हैं। इनमें से प्रत्येक प्रश्न का उत्तर 70 शब्दों में लिखिए।
  • भाग B के प्रश्न सं० 22 से 27 तक प्रयोगात्मक कौशल पर आधारित हैं। प्रत्येक प्रश्न दो अंक का है।

SECTION A

प्र०1.
एक ऐसे पुष्प का नाम लिखिए जिसमें पुंकेसर व स्त्रीकेसर दोनों भाग पाए जाते हैं।

प्र०2.
पेप्सिन एवं ट्रेप्सिन एंजाइमों के बीच एक अंतर लिखिए। पेप्सिन

प्र०3.
एक तत्व “X” जिसका परमाणु द्रव्यमान 35 है तथा उसके परमाणु में यदि 18 न्यूट्रॉन हों तो उस तत्व “X” की समूह संख्या तथा आवर्त संख्या ज्ञात कीजिए।

प०4.
1.2 m ऊँचाई वाले बिम्ब को एक अवतल दर्पण के सामने रखा है। यदि दर्पण की फोकस दूरी 20 cm है और बिम्ब का प्रतिबिम्ब दर्पण के सामने 60 cm की दूरी पर वास्तविक प्रतिबिम्ब बनता है। ज्ञात कीजिए कि बिम्ब दर्पण के सामने कितनी दूरी पर रखा है? बनने वाले प्रतिबिम्ब की ऊँचाई ज्ञात कीजिए।

प्र०5.
गैर-परम्परागत ऊर्जा स्रोतों के दोहन की क्या आवश्यकता है? कोई दो मुख्य कारण लिखिए।

प्र०6.
उस वैद्युत संयंत्र का नाम लिखिए जो यांत्रिक ऊर्जा को विद्युत ऊर्जा में रूपांतरित करता है। इसका एक नामांकित चित्र बनाएं तथा इसकी कार्यविधि का सिद्धांत भी लिखिए।
अथवा
(i) वैद्युत उपकरणों में भूसंपर्क तार को क्या कार्य है?
(ii) विद्युत प्रवाह में लघुपथन का क्या अर्थ है? इसकी व्याख्या कीजिए।
(iii) निम्नलिखित के लिए कितनी मात्रा का फ्यूज़ विद्युत परिपथ में लगाना चाहिए :
(a) बल्ब तथा पंखों के लिए
(b) 2 kW या उससे अधिक शक्ति वाले उपकरणों के लिए?

प्र०7.
एक ऐसे विद्युत परिपथ का आरेख बनाइए जिसमें एक सेल, एक कुंजी, एक ऐमीटर तथा एक 4Ω के प्रतिरोधक के साथ श्रेणी क्रम में, दो 8Ω के प्रतिरोधक जो परस्पर समांतर क्रम में लगे हैं, उसके साथ जुड़े हैं। समांतर क्रम के साथ वोल्टमीटर भी लगा है। ये तीनों प्रतिरोधक, प्रत्येक अधिकतम ऊर्जा लेकर 16Ω की शक्ति को बिना पिघले हुए सह सकते हैं। प्रत्येक प्रतिरोधक में से अधिकतम कितनी विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो सकती है, उसकी गणना कीजिए।

प्र०8.
जल के वैद्युत अपघटन में :
(a) केथोड तथा एनोड पर एकत्रित होने वाली गैसों के नाम लिखिए।
(b) एक इलेक्ट्रॉड पर एकत्र होने वाली गैस का आयतन दूसरी गैसों से दोगुना क्यों है?
(c) यदि जल में तनु H2SO4 अम्ल नहीं डालेंगे तो क्या होगा?

प्र०9.
मेन्डेलीफ की आवर्त सारणी तथा आधुनिक आवर्त सारणी में तत्वों को स्थान देने के तरीकों में अंतर स्पष्ट कीजिए।

प्र०10.
ऑक्सीजन की अनुपस्थिति में ग्लूकोज़ किस प्रकार विघटित होता है, उन विधियों के बारे में लिखिए।
अथवा
धमनियों तथा शिराओं के बीच कोई तीन अंतर लिखिए।

प्र०11.
मेंडल के प्रयोगों से किस प्रकार सिद्ध होता है कि लक्षण प्रभावी अथवा अप्रभावी होते हैं?

प्र०12.
रोहित ने एक उत्तल लेंस का उपयोग करते हुए एक मोमबत्ती की ज्वाला को एक सफेद पर्दे पर फोकसित किया। उसने निम्नलिखित पठनों को अंकित किया :
मोमबत्ती की स्थिति = 26.0 cm
उत्तल लेंस की स्थिति = 50.0 cm
पर्दे की स्थिति = 74.0 cm
अब निम्नलिखित को उत्तर दीजिए :
(i) उत्तल लेंस की फोकस दूरी ज्ञात कीजिए।
(ii) यदि रोहित अब मोमबत्ती को 38 cm पर रखता है तो उसका प्रतिबिम्ब कहाँ पर बनेगा?
(iii) ऊपर की (ii) स्थिति के लिए प्रतिबिम्ब के बनने के लिए किरण आरेख बनाइए।

प्र०13.
“pH का हमारे जीवन में काफी महत्त्व है”, इसका वर्णन तीन उदाहरण देते हुए कीजिए।
अथवा
जिप्सम से एक यौगिक को बनाया जाता है। यह यौगिक पानी की उचित मात्रा को साथ मिलाने पर कठोर हो जाता है। इस यौगिक को पहचानिए एवं इसका रासायनिक सूत्र लिखिए। इसे बनाने के लिए समीकरण लिखिए। इस यौगिक का एक उपयोग भी लिखिए।

प्र०14.
जैव विकास के अध्ययन के लिए जीवाश्मों का ज्ञान क्यों महत्त्वपूर्ण है? उन दो विधियों का वर्णन कीजिए जिनसे जीवाश्मों की आयु का अनुमान लगाया जा सकता है।

प्र०15.
AIDS के विषय में लोगों को जानकारी देने के लिए हमारी सरकार समय-समय पर पोस्टरों द्वारा, रेडियो कार्यक्रमों द्वारा तथा अन्य प्रकार के विज्ञापनों द्वारा इससे बचने के उपाय तथा उपचार के विषय में बताती रहती है।
(a) AIDS किस प्रकार का रोग है? इस रोग के कारक का नाम लिखिए।
(b) हमारी सरकार ऊपरलिखित कार्यक्रमों द्वारा AIDS के विषय में लोगों में किस प्रकार की जागरूकता विकसित करना चाहती है?

प्र०16.
एक लंबे सीधे चालक तार में विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित होने पर उसके चारों तरफ किस प्रकार का चुंबकीय क्षेत्र उत्पादित होता है, विद्युत परिपथ के नामांकित चित्र द्वारा एक क्रियाकलाप द्वारा इसका वर्णन करें।
(i) उस नियम का नाम लिखिए जो इस प्रकार के विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित चालक में उत्पादित चुंबकीय क्षेत्र की दिशा को बताता है।
(ii) क्या इसी प्रकार का चुंबकीय क्षेत्र तब भी विकसित होगा जबे
(a) एल्फा कणों का एक पतला पुंज गतिशील है तथा
(b) न्यूट्रॉन कणों का एक पतला पुंज गतिशील है?

प्र०17.
यदि आपको गेंद व तीलियों के 6 कार्बन व 14 हाइड्रोजन परमाणुओं वाला मॉडल दिया गया है। साथ में अतिरिक्त तीलियाँ भी दी गई हैं। इनसे आप C6H14 वाले कितने प्रकार के अणुओं को बना सकते है?
अथवा
C3H6O अणुसूत्र वाले दो समावयव यौगिकों के संरचना सूत्र लिखिए। इन दोनों यौगिकों के इलेक्ट्रॉन बिन्दु संरचना सूत्र भी लिखिए।

प्र०18.
(a) (i) मनुष्य के मस्तिष्क का एक साफ़ चित्र बनाइए।
(ii) इस चित्र में मेडुला व अनुमस्तिष्क को नामांकित कीजिए।
(iii) ऊपरलिखित भागों के कार्य भी लिखिए।।
(b) वृद्धि हार्मोन के अधिक उत्पादन तथा कम उत्पादन के कारण हमारे शरीर में किस प्रकार के रोग हो जाते हैं? उनका वर्णन कीजिए।

प्र०19.
नूपुर को अपनी आंख की दृष्टि को ठीक करने के लिए -4.5 D शक्ति के लेंस लगाने की आवश्यकता पड़ती है।
(a) नुपुर को किस प्रकार का दृष्टिदोष है? ।
(b) इस दोष को ठीक करने वाले लेंस की प्रकृति व फोकस दूरी क्या है?
(c) (i) दोष दिखाने के लिए व
(ii) उसके संशोधन के लिए किरण आरेख बनाइए।
(d) इस दृष्टि दोष के दो कारण लिखिए।

प्र०20.
(a) धातुओं की सक्रियता श्रेणी से आप क्या समझते हैं? इस श्रेणी की सहायता से हम विभिन्न धातुओं का परस्पर अधिक या कम् क्रियाशील होने का पता किस प्रकार लगा सकते हैं?
(b) धातुओं की सक्रियता श्रेणी में मध्य भाग में पाई जाने वाली धातुओं को उनके ऑक्साइड अयस्कों से किस प्रकार प्राप्त किया जा सकता है? इसी प्रकार इस श्रेणी में ऊपरी सिरे पर पाई जाने वाली धातुओं को उनके ऑक्साइडों से किस प्रकार प्राप्त कर सकते हैं? प्रत्येक के लिए एक उदाहरण दीजिए।

प्र०21.
(a) “हमारी जीवनशैली की उन्नति के कारण बहुत मात्रा में कचरे का उत्पादन हो रहा है।” इस कथन के पक्ष में दो उदाहरण दीजिए। एक ऐसे परिवर्तन के विषय में लिखिए जो हम अपनी जीवनशैली में अपनायें जिससे अनिम्नीकरण वाले कचरे की मात्रा कम हो सके।
(b) निम्नलिखित जीव एक खाद्य श्रृंखला बनाते हैं :
कीड़ा, बाज, घास, सांप, मेंढक
इनमें से किस जीव में सबसे अधिक मात्रा में अनिम्नीकरणीय रसायन पाए जाएंगे। इस प्रकृम का नाम लिखिए।
अथवा
(a) ‘जले संभर प्रबंधन’ से आप क्या समझते हैं? इसके कोई दो लाभ लिखिए।
(b) “मनुष्य किसी खाद्य श्रृंखला में सबसे अधिक पोषी स्तर पर है।’ इसका हमारे शरीर पर क्या प्रभाव पड़ेगा?

SECTION B

प्र०22.
आप निम्नलिखित परखनलियों में बारी-बारी से एसिटिक अम्ल की कुछ बूंदें डालने पर क्या प्रेक्षण करेंगे?
(a) फिनॉलफ्थेलीन
(b) सार्वत्रिक सूचक
(c) आसुत जल
(d) सोडियम हाइड्रोजन कार्बोनेट

प्र०23.
साबुन के घोल से कितनी मात्रा में झाग बनती है, इसके लिए रिया ने दो प्रयोग किए। ये प्रयोग हैं :
प्रयोग I: रिया ने एक परखनली “A” में 10 मिली आसुत जल लिया तथा उसमें 5-6 बूंदें तरल साबुन की डाल कर, उसे अच्छी प्रकार से हिलाया।
प्रयोग II: उसने एक परखनली “A” में 10 मिली आसुत जल लेकर उसमें 5-6 बूंदें तरल साबुन की डालीं तथा उसमें आधा चम्मच CaSO4 डाला तथा परखनली को अच्छी तरह से हिलाया।
अब इन दोनों परखनलियों में आप क्या प्रेक्षण करेंगे, लिखिए।

प्र०24.
एक विद्यार्थी ने यीस्ट में अलैंगिक प्रजनन को दिखाते हुए एक स्थाई स्लाइड को सूक्ष्मदर्शी में देखा। उसने स्लाइड में जो प्रेक्षण देखे, उसे चित्रों द्वारा दिखाएं तथा इस प्रजनन विधि का नाम भी लिखिए।

प्र०25.
श्वसन क्रिया में CO2 गैस उत्पादित होती है, इसके लिए एक विद्यार्थी ने एक प्रयोग किया। इस प्रयोग को करते हुए कौन-कौन सी सावधानियाँ अपनानी चाहिए। कोई दो सावधानियाँ लिखिए।

प्र०26.
एक प्रतिरोधक में प्रवाहित विद्युत धारा I तथा उसके लिए विभावंतर V के मानों को नीचे एक सारणी में दर्शाया गया है।
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 26
इस आधार पर V तथा I के बीच एक ग्राफ बनाइए तथा उससे प्रतिरोधक का प्रतिरोध ज्ञात कीजिए।
अथवा
ओम के नियम को सत्यापित करने वाले प्रयोग में एक विद्यार्थी ऐमीटर की सुई को 17 के निशान पर पाता है। यदि ऐमीटर में 10 भागों के बीच 0 से 0.5 A का मान हो तो 17 भागों के बराबर विद्युत धारा की मात्रा क्या होगी?

प्र०27.
एक प्रिज्म में से एक प्रकाश की किरण को जाते हुए दिखाने के लिए एक किरण आरेख बनाइए तथा उसमें आपतन कोण व विचलन कोण को नामांकित कीजिए।

Answers

उत्तर 1-
ऐसे पुष्प उभयलिंगी पुष्प कहलाते हैं।
उदाहरण : सरसों के पुष्प, गुड़हल (Hibiscus) के पुष्प आदि।

उत्तर 2-
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 2

उत्तर 3-
तत्व X की परमाणु संख्या = (35 – 18) = 17
∴ इसका इलेक्ट्रॉनिक विन्यास = 2, 8, 7
∴ इस तत्व की समूह संख्या 17 है क्योंकि इसके सबसे बाहरी कक्ष में 7 इलेक्ट्रॉन हैं। इसकी आवर्त संख्या 3 है, क्योंकि इसके तीन कक्ष हैं।

उत्तर 4-
h1 = 1.2 m; f = -20 cm (अवतल दर्पण); v = -60 cm;
u = ? h2 = ?
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 4
प्रतिबिम्ब की ऊँचाई -2.4 m है, ऋणात्मक चिन्ह दर्शाता है कि प्रतिबिम्ब वास्तविक व उलटा बना है।।

उत्तर 5-
गैर-परम्परागत ऊर्जा स्रोतों के दोहन के मुख्य कारणः
(i) मनुष्य की जनसंख्या वृद्धि के कारण तथा आधुनिक जीवन शैली के कारण, ऊर्जा की मांग काफी बढ़ती जा रही है।
(ii) जीवाश्म ईंधनों की मात्रा काफी तेज़ी से पृथ्वी पर घटती जा रही है।

उत्तर 6-
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 6
जो संयंत्र यांत्रिक ऊर्जा को विद्युत ऊर्जा में रूपांतरित करता है वह विद्युत जनित्र (Electric Generator) कहलाता है।
विद्युत जनित्र की कार्यविधि का सिद्धांत-विद्युत जनित्र का कार्य विद्युत चुम्बक प्रेरण पर आधारित है तथा इसे फ्लेमिंग के दक्षिण-हस्त (दाँया हाथ) नियम के आधार पर समझा जा सकता है। जब एक विद्युतरोधी तार को एक चुंबक के चुंबकीय क्षेत्र में घुमाया जाता है तो चुंबकीय क्षेत्र परिवर्तित हो जाता है। इस कारण विद्युतरोधी तार में विद्युत प्रवाह प्रेरित होता है।
अथवा
(i) वैद्युत उपकरणों में भूसंपर्क तार का कार्य- भूसंपर्क तार एक सुरक्षा व्यवस्था है जिसे विद्युत परिपथ में प्रयोग किया जाता है। जब उपकरण में किसी त्रुटि के कारण विद्युत धारा का रिसाव होने लगता है। तो यह तार काफी अधिक मात्रा की विद्युत धारा को भूमि में ले जाती है तथा ऐसे उपकरण को छूने पर हम विद्युत आघात से बच जाते हैं।
(ii) विद्युत प्रवाह में लघुपथन का अर्थ-विद्युत प्रवाह के समय यदि विद्युन्मय तार, उदासीन तार को परिपथ के बीच में ही संपर्क कर ले तो उसे लघुपथन कहते हैं। इससे परिपथ में काफी अधिक मात्रा में विद्युत प्रवाहित होने लगती है जिसके कारण आग भी लग सकती है।
(iii) (a) 5A का।।
(b) 15A को।।

उत्तर 7-
हमें ज्ञात है, P = I²R;
P = 16 वाट
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 7

उत्तर 8-
(a) कैथोड पर हाइड्रोजन H2 व एनोड पर ऑक्सीजन O2 गैस एकत्र होगी।
(b) कैथोड पर हाइड्रोजन गैस का आयतन एनोड पर ऑक्सीजन गैस के आयतन से दोगुना होगा क्योंकि जल (H2O) के अणु में इनका आयतन अनुपात 2:1 होता है। जल में ऑक्सीजन तत्वों के एक भाग की तुलना में हाइड्रोजन तत्वों के दो भाग होते हैं।
(c) यदि जल में तनु H2SO4 अम्ल की थोड़ी-सी मात्रा नहीं डालेंगे तो जल में से विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित नहीं होगी क्योंकि शुद्ध जल विद्युत धारा का कुचालक है। H2SO4 अम्ल की बूंदें डालने पर, हम इसे विद्युत धारा का अच्छा सुचालक बना सकते हैं।

उत्तर 9-
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 9
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 9.1

उत्तर 10-
ऑक्सीजन की अनुपस्थिति में ग्लूकोज़ दो प्रकार से विघटित होता है :
(i) जीवाणुओं तथा यीस्ट फंफूद कोशिका में, ऑक्सीजन की अनुपस्थिति में, ग्लूकोज़ CO2 गैस तथा एथिल अल्कोहॉल (C2H5OH) में विघटित होता है। इस क्रिया में बहुत कम मात्रा में ऊर्जा प्राप्त होती है। क्योंकि यह प्रक्रम वायु ऑक्सीजन की अनुपस्थिति में होता है, इसे अवायवीय श्वसन कहते है।
(ii) हमारी मांसपेशियों में भी ग्लूकोज वायु की अनुपस्थिति में कभी-कभी विघटित होकर लैक्टिक अम्ल के दो अणु बनाता है। इस प्रक्रिया में भी कम मात्रा में ऊर्जा प्राप्त होती है।
अथवा
धमनियों तथा शिराओं के बीच अंतर :
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 10

उत्तर 11-
लक्षण प्रभावी अथवा अप्रभावी होते हैं-जब मेंडल ने एक संतति (F1 पीढ़ी) पाने हेतु अलग-अलग लक्षण की प्रवृत्ति वाले एक जैसे पौधों, एक लंबे मटर के पौधे (TT) तथा एक बौने मटर के पौधे (tt), का आपस में संकरण करवाया तो उसने पाया कि सभी F1 पौधे लम्बे थे। इस पीढी का प्रभावी गुण लंबाई था। परंतु जब F1 पीढ़ी के पौधों का स्वनिषेचन कराया तो इसे पीढ़ी में दोनों लक्षण अलग अलग हो गए। F2 पीढ़ी के सभी पौधे लंबे नहीं थे। F2 पीढ़ी के एक-चौथाई पौधे बौने थे। F1 और F2 दोनों पीढ़ियों में लंबाई अभिलक्षण पाया गया अर्थात् यह प्रभावी लक्षण था। वहीं बौनेपन का लक्षण F1 पीढ़ी में दिखाई नहीं देता परंतु यह लक्षण फिर से F2 पीढ़ी में दिखाई दिया अर्थात् यह अप्रभावी लक्षण था।।

उत्तर 12-
(i) लेंस की स्थिति = 50.0 cm;
मोमबत्ती की स्थिति = 26.0 cm
u = (50 – 26) = 24 cm;
u = -24 cm (चिन्ह परिपाटी अनुसार)
पर्दे की स्थिति = 74.0 cm;
v = 74 – 50 = 24 cm
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 12

उत्तर 13-
हमारे जीवन में pH के महत्त्व के लिए तीन उदाहरण :
(i) हमारे पाचन तंत्र का pH : हमारे अमाशय में भोजन अम्लीय माध्यम pH मान 4 से 6 के बीच में पचता है। pH मान इससे कम हो जाए तो अम्लता का रोग हो सकता है।
(ii) जलीय जीव अपने जैविक कार्यों को ठीक प्रकार से तब कर पाते हैं जब जल स्रोतों का pH मान उदासीन (pH मान 6.5 से 7.5 के बीच) होता है। अम्लीय वर्षा के कारण जब जल स्रोतों का pH मान घट जाता है तो जलीय जीवन बुरी तरह से प्रभावित होता है।
(iii) pH परिवर्तन के कारण दंत-क्षय : हमारे दांतों में छेद भी pH के मुख गुहिका में मान के कम होने के कारण होते हैं। दांतों के बीच फंसे हुए रात के भोजन के अवशेषों के साथ मुख में जीवाणु अभिक्रिया करते हैं तथा उसे अम्ल में बदल देते हैं। यह अम्ल दांतों के ऊपरी कठोर चमकीले भाग से क्रिया कर उसे हटाने लगता है। जिसके कारण दांतों में छेद होने लगते हैं। इसके कुप्रभावों से बचने के लिए हमें रात को दांत साफ करके सोना चाहिए। टूथपेस्ट क्षारीय होने के कारण अम्ल के प्रभाव को समाप्त कर देता है।
अथवा
यह यौगिक प्लास्टर ऑफ पेरिस (POP) है।
इसका रासायनिक सूत्र : CaSO4. ½H2O
POP बनाने के लिए समीकरण :
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 13
इस यौगिक का एक उपयोग-इस यौगिक का उपयोग घर की दीवारों तथा आंतरिक छतों को सजाने के लिए किया जाता है।

उत्तर 14-
जीवाश्मों के अध्ययन से हमें पता चलता है कि किस प्रकार सरल जीवों से जटिल जीवों का विकास हुआ है। जीवाश्म दो प्रकार के जीवों के समूह के बीच संबंध के लिए जोड़ (link) का कार्य भी करते हैं, अर्थात् बताते हैं कि किस प्रकार एक प्रकार के समूह से दूसरी प्रकार के समूह के जीवों का विकास हुआ है।
दो विधियाँ जिनसे जीवाश्मों की आयु का अनुमान लगाया जा सकता है :
(i) जीवाश्मों की आयु का अनुमान हम समस्थानिकों C-14 की प्रतिशत मात्रा की तुलना द्वारा जीवाश्मों में | उपस्थित इसकी प्रतिशत मात्रा व आजकल के जीवों में इसकी प्रतिशत मात्रा के आधार पर लगा सकते हैं।
(ii) जीवाश्म चट्टानों में कितनी गहराई से प्राप्त हुए हैं, उसे आधार पर भी उनकी आयु का अनुमान लगा सकते हैं। जैसे कि ऊपरी चट्टानों पर पाये जाने वाले जीवाश्मों की आयु गहरी चट्टानों पर पाए जाने वाले जीवाश्मों से कम है।

उत्तर 15-
(a) AIDS एक प्रकार का विषाणुजनित रोग है। इसका कारक HIV विषाणु है। यह लैंगिक संचारित रोग है।
(b) हमारी सरकार ऊपर प्रश्न में लिखे गए कार्यक्रमों द्वारा, AIDS जैसी घातक बीमारी के प्रति जागरूक करना चाहती है। यह रोग यौन क्रियाओं द्वारा अधिक तेज़ी से फैलता है। इस रोग से किस प्रकार बचा जा सकता है, इसके विषय में सरकार समय-समय पर समाचार पत्रों, रेडियो तथा टी०वी० के माध्यम से लोगों को जानकारी देने का प्रयास करती रहती है।

उत्तर 16-
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 16
क्रियाकलाप-एक 12 V की बैटरी, एक परिवती प्रतिरोध (धारा नियंत्रक), 0-5 A परिसर को ऐमीटर, एक प्लग कुजी तथा एक लंबा मोटा सीधा ताँबे का तार लीजिए। एक आयताकार कार्डबोर्ड का टुकड़ा लेकर उसके बीचोंबीच कार्डबोर्ड के तल के अभिलंबवत इस मोटे तार को प्रविष्ट कराइए। यह सावधानी रखिए कि कार्डबोर्ड तार में स्थिर रहे, ऊपर-नीचे हिले-डुले नहीं। चित्र में दिखाए अनुसार ताँबे के तार को उर्ध्वाधरत: बिंदुओं A तथा B के बीच श्रेणीक्रम में बैटरी, ऐमीटर, धारा नियंत्रक तथा प्लग कुंजी से संयोजित कीजिए। तार के चारों ओर कार्डबोर्ड पर कुछ लौह-चूर्ण एकसमान रूप से छितराइए। धारा-नियंत्रक के परिवर्तक को किसी एक नियत स्थिति पर रखिए तथा ऐमीटर में विद्युत धारा का पाठ्यांक नोट कीजिए। कुंजी लगाकर परिपथ बंद कीजिए ताकि ताँबे के तार से विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो। यह सुनिश्चित कीजिए कि बिंदुओं A और B के बीच में लगा ताँबे का तार ऊध्र्वाधरतः सीधा रहे। कार्डबोर्ड को हलके से कुछ बार थपथपाइए। लौह-चूर्ण के पैटर्न का प्रेक्षण कीजिए। आप देखेंगे कि लोह-चूर्ण संरेखित होकर तार के चारों ओर संकेंद्री वृत्तों के रूप में व्यवस्थित होकर एक वृत्ताकार पैटर्न बनाता है।
(i) यह नियम दक्षिण-हस्त अंगुष्ठ नियम है।
(ii) • हाँ, इसमें चुंबकीय क्षेत्र उत्पादित होगा क्योंकि एल्फा कणों पर धन आवेश होता है तथा ये गतिशील कण एक प्रकार से विद्युत धारा का प्रवाह कर रहे हैं।
• न्यूट्रॉन कणों के गतिशील पुंज के कारण कोई चुंबकीय क्षेत्र उत्पन्न नहीं होगा क्योंकि इन कणों पर कोई आवेश नहीं होता है।

उत्तर 17-
इनसे हम 5 प्रकार के C6H14 वाले अणु बना सकते हैं क्योंकि C6H14 (हेक्सेन) के 5 समावयव होते हैं।
ये अणु हैं :
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 17
अथवा
C3H6O अणुसूत्र वाले दो समावयव
(i) C2H5CHO, प्रोपेनैल और
(ii) CH3COCH3 प्रोपेनोन हैं।
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 17.1

उत्तर 18-
(a) (i) & (ii):
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 18
(iii) मेडुला के कार्य-यह पश्चमस्तिष्क का एक भाग है। मेडुला रक्तदाब, लार आना तथा वमन आदि क्रियाओं को नियंत्रित करता है।
अनुमस्तिष्क के कार्य-अनुमस्तिष्क भी पश्चमस्तिष्क का एक भाग है। अनुमस्तिष्क एच्छिक क्रियाओं को नियंत्रित करता है। यह भाग शरीर की संस्थिति तथा संतुलन के लिए भी उत्तरदायी
(b) वृद्धि हार्मोन शरीर की वृद्धि तथा विकास को नियत्रित करता है। वृद्धि हार्मोन के अधिक उत्पादन के कारण, व्यक्ति काफी लम्बा व दानव रूपी हो जाता है। तथा इस हार्मोन के कम उत्पादन के कारण व्यक्ति बौना रह जाता है।

उत्तर 19-
(a) नुपुर निकटदृष्टि दोष से पीड़ित है।।
(b) P = -4.5D; f= ?; f = \(\frac { 1 }{ p }\)
f = \(\frac { 1 }{ -4.5 }\) = \(\frac { -10 }{ 45 }\) = -0.22 मी०
दोष को ठीक करने वाले लेंस की फोकस दूरी -0.22 m है। (-) चिन्ह दर्शाता है कि यह अवतल लेंस है।
(c) (i) दोष दिखाने के लिए व (ii) उसे ठीक करने के लिए किरण आरेख :
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 19
(d) निकटदृष्टि दोष के कारण :
(i) नेत्रगोलकों की लम्बाई बढ़ने के कारण।
(ii) अभिनेत्र लेंस की वक्रता अत्यधिक होने के कारण।

उत्तर 20-
(a) सक्रियता श्रेणी-धातुओं को उनकी घटती हुई क्रियाशीलता के अनुसार एक खड़ी पंक्ति में क्रमबद्ध करने की प्रक्रिया को धातुओं की सक्रियता श्रेणी कहा जाता है।
सक्रियता श्रेणी में जो धातु ऊपर हैं, वह अधिक क्रियाशील हैं, बीच वाली धातु मध्यम क्रियाशील हैं नीचे वाली धातु कम क्रियाशील हैं। कोई भी धातु, अपने से नीचे वाली धातुओं को उनके लवणों के विलयनों से विस्थापित कर सकती है। जो धातु इस श्रेणी में हाइड्रोजन से ऊपर हैं, वे हाइड्रोजन को तनु अम्लों में से तथा जल में से विस्थापित कर सकती हैं।
(b) मध्यम क्रम की धातुओं को उनके ऑक्साइड यौगिकों से दो विधियों द्वारा प्राप्त किया जा सकता हैं :
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 20

उत्तर 21-
(a) आधुनिक जीवन में अधिक कचरा उत्पादन होने के दो उदाहरण :
(i) वर्तमान में बहुत अधिक मात्रा में अपघटित पदार्थों, जैसे पॉलीथीन, प्लास्टिक तथा पेपर प्लेट्स, का उपयोग बढ़ गया है।
(ii) कांच की बोतलों तथा टिन के डिब्बों आदि का उपयोग भी बहुत बढ़ गया है।
कचरा, कम करने के सुझाव-हम अनिम्नीकरणीय कचरे का निपटान कम उपयोग, पुन: उपयोग तथा पुनः चक्रण जैसी तकनीकों का प्रयोग करके कर सकते हैं। हमें प्लास्टिक व कांच के डिब्बों को घरों में पुनः प्रयोग करने के लिए प्रोत्साहित करना चाहिए ताकि हम इस प्रकार के कचरे की मात्रा में कमी ला सकें। पैकिंग किए जाने वाले पदार्थ पुनः प्रयोग किए जाने वाले पदार्थों से बनाए जाने चाहिएं-जैसे कपड़ा तथा कागज़।
(b) इस खाद्य श्रृंखला का सही क्रम है :
घास → कीड़ा → मेंढक → सांप → बाज
इनमें से बाज में सबसे अधिक मात्रा में अनिम्नीकरणीय रसायन पाए जाएंगे। इस प्रक्रम को जैव आवर्धन कहते हैं।
अथवा
(a) जल संभर प्रबंधन-मिट्टी, भूमि तथा जल स्रोतों को संरक्षण जब वैज्ञानिक पद्धतियाँ अपना करे किया जाए तो इसे जल संभर प्रबंधन कहते हैं।
जल संभर प्रबंधन के दो लाभ :
(i) इससे हम अकाल तथा बाढ़ की समस्या को काफी हद तक नियंत्रित कर सकते हैं।
(ii) इस प्रबंधन द्वारा स्थानीय समुदाय के लोगों द्वारा बनाए गए उत्पादों का उत्पादन बढ़ेगा जिससे उनकी आय में भी वृद्धि होगी।
(b) मनुष्यों का अपनी खाद्य श्रृंखलाओं में सबसे ऊपर के पोषी स्तर पर पाये जाने के कारण, मानव शरीर में हानिकारक रसायनों की मात्रा जैव-आवर्धन के कारण लगातार बढ़ती जाएगी। जिससे मानव शरीर में कई प्रकार के घातक रोग हो सकते हैं।
सबसे ऊपरी पोषी स्तर पर होने के कारण, मनुष्य को भोजन की ऊर्जा भी काफी कम मात्रा में उपलब्ध हो पाती है (10% ऊर्जा प्रवाह नियमानुसार)।

उत्तर 22-
(a) ऐसिटिक अम्ल फिनॉफ्थेलीन विलयन में रंगहीन का रंगहीन ही रहेगा।
(b) सार्वत्रिक सूचक में इसका रंग संतरी हो जाएगा।
(c) आसुत जल में अम्ल विलय हो जाएगा तथा एक पारदर्शी शुद्ध विलयन बनाएगा।
(d) इसमें से एक रंगहीन गैस CO2 उत्पादित होगी, जो कि चूने के पानी को दूधिया कर देती है।

उत्तर 23-
प्रयोग I में साबुन की झाग की काफी अधिक मात्रा बनेगी।
प्रयोग II में साबुन की झाग काफी कम मात्रा में बनेगी क्योंकि उसमें Ca2+ आयन होने के कारण वह जल कठोर हो जाएगा। कठोर जल में साबुन झाग नहीं बनाता है, परंतु सफेद अघुलनशील झाग बनाता है।

उत्तर 24-
यह विधि अलैंगिक प्रजनन की मुकुलन विधि के नाम से जानी जाती है।
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 24

उत्तर 25-
दो सावधानियाँ :
(i) उपकरण पूरी तरह से वायुरुद्ध होना चाहिए ताकि उत्पादित CO2 गैस उसमें से बाहर न निकल पाए।
(ii) फ्लास्क में अंकुरित होते हुए (जीवित) बीज लिए जाएं।

उत्तर 26-
ग्राफ से हम V तथा I के मानों को ले सकते हैं :
V = (6.7 – 3.4) = 3.3 वोल्ट
I = (2.0 – 1.0) = 1.0 A
R = \(\frac { V }{ I }\) = \(\frac { 3.3 }{ 1.0 }\) = 3.3Ω
प्रतिरोध = 3.3 Ω
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 26
अथवा
ऐमीटर में 10 भागों के बीच 0 से 0.5 A का मान है।
1 भाग का मान = \(\frac { 0.5-0.0 }{ 10 }\) = 0.05A
ऐमीटर की सुई 17 वें भाग के निशाने पर पाई जाती है।
विद्युत धारा की मात्रा = 0.05 x 17 = 0.85A

उत्तर 27-
काँच के त्रिभुज प्रिज्म से प्रकाश का अपवर्तन :
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium Paper 4 27
PE – आपतित किरण
EF – अपवर्तित किरण
FS – निर्गत किरण
∠A – प्रिज्म कोण
∠i – आपतन कोण
∠r – अपवर्तन कोण
∠e – निर्गत कोण
∠D – विचलन कोण

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